Hydrocarbons and Concepts Part 1

Notes on trickier facts and knowledge. Basic knowledge required.

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  • Created on: 20-04-11 11:17
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Chemistry Revision
Alcohol hydroxy ol OH
Aldehyde al CHO
Ketone one CCOC
Carboxylic acid oic acid COOH
Isomerism
Structural isomers: molecules with the same molecular formula but different structural
arrangement of atoms.
Stereoisomers: compounds with the same structural formula, but with a different
arrangement of the atoms in space.
E/Z isomerism: different groups attached to each carbon of a C=C bond may be arranged
differently because of the restricted rotation of the C=C.
A molecule must satisfy 2 criteria to have E/Z isomerism:
A C=C must exist
Each carbon in the double bond must be attached to 2 different groups.
Z Together
E Apart
Trans fat are lees fluid so build up as cholesterol.
Homolytic fission: breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to
each atom to form 2 radicals
XY X. + Y.
Heterolytic fission: breaking of a covalent bond with both of the bonded electrons going to
one of the electrons, forming a +ion and a ion.
XY X+ + Y
Electrophile: a species attracted to an electron rich species where it accepts a pair of
electrons to form a covalent bond.
Br2, HBr, NO2+
Nucleophile: a species attracted to an electron deficient species where it donates a pair of
electrons to form a covalent bond.
:Br, :OH, H2O: , :NH3

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