History Unit 1- Topic 2

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Treaty of Versailles and Peace Making
The Treaty of Versailles
January 1919 27 victorious allied powers meet in Versailles to make peace treaty (Germany
was not present)
The people present at this conference were: George Clemenceau, David Lloyd George and
Woodrow Wilson.
Clemenceau: the French President
He was 77, had seen France invaded twice.
He wanted AlsaceLorraine returned to France and Germany to lose land.
He wanted high reparations and compensation.
He wanted Germany disarmed and Clemenceau wanted r evenge.
Woodrow Wilson: the American President
Wilson was an idealist and wanted peace in Europe.
It was easy for him to say this because the USA was detached from the situation and
the USA didn't join the war until 1917.
Wilson had 14 Key Points to prevent another war.
He believed Germany shouldn't be punished t oo harshly.
He was an idealist.
David Lloyd George: the British Prime Minister
He came to power by promising the British people he would punish the Germans
Lloyd George also agreed with Wilson that a s trong German economy would be good
for everyone
He had threatened to hang K aiser Wilhelm II
He did not want
high reparations because he feared it would make the Germans
resentful and make them want war
He wanted Germany to become stable for fear of a c ommunist revolution
Lloyd George was a compromiser.
Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George had the most impact over what was decided at the
conference.
America: peace in Europe, the League of Nations and a stable Germany
France: revenge and Germany unarmed
Britain: compromise and reparations
Germany: easy terms to keep, it's land and colonies

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The Treaty of Versailles was signed on the 2
8th of June 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors in
Versailles, the same place where Germany had first been established in 1870.
Article 231 angered and humiliated the Germans. It forced them to accept the blame for the
war and would make them pay all the reparations.…read more

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Limits on the Armed Forces:
The Treaty hugely restricted the German Armed Forces. They were only:
Allowed 100,000 men in their army
Not allowed the use of
conscription in the future. All soldiers had to volunteer.
Not allowed any submarines or aeroplanes.
Only allowed 6 small battleships
Not allowed to put any troops in the R
hineland. The area was completely demilitarised.…read more

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The idea was that they would prevent another World War from breaking out.
Extra Points:
Germany was not allowed Anschluss with Austria and Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were
made independent states.
Summary:
Germany lost 10% of it's land.
It lost all of it's colonies.
12% of the German population were now living in other countries
Germany lost 16% of it's coalfields
Germany lost half of it's iron and
steel industry.
They lost most of their army and navy and lost their entire air force.…read more

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Covenant Aims:
To prevent aggression by any nation
To encourage cooperation between nations
Work towards international disarmament
Improve people's living and working conditions
When the League of Nations was originally formed there were 4
2 countries. By 1930
membership had increased to 60.
Bodies of the League of Nations:
The Council:
The permanent council was made up of Britain, France, Japan and Italy
The council met 5 times a year
They had a blocking veto.…read more

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They solved many issues peacefully including: cutting down slavery in Burma and
Africa.
The also cut down 4 large drug dealing companies in Switzerland and they reduced the
impact of Malaria and Leprosy.
Weaknesses:
The USA did not join the League.…read more

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The Japanese set up a puppet government and placed the last emperor Pu Yi in control of
the province.…read more

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It bordered two Italian Colonies of Eritrea
and Somaliland
The League of Nations and Abyssinia:
The League knew that Mussolini wanted Abyssinia.
In 1928 there had been a Treaty of Friendship between the two countries.…read more

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Whilst the crisis had been going on the League did not realise that Hitler had:
Reintroduced conscription in 1935
Remilitarised the Rhineland in March 1936
Treaties:
In 1936 the RomeBerlin axis was signed
In 1937 the AntiCommitern Pact was signed between Italy, German and Japan…read more

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