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Hard and Soft Water
· Distilled water can be described as soft water
because it does not contain dissolved calcium
or magnesium salts
· Hard water contains large amounts of calcium
salts and smaller amounts of magnesium salts
dissolved in it…read more

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Formation of Hard Salts
· Rain dissolves CO2 from the atmosphere and
forms carbonic acid
· Dissolved carbonic acid moves through rocks
and soils that contain Ca and Mg minerals and
dissolves them…read more

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Hard
· Link between hard water and reduced heart
· Stronger bones and teeth
· Tastes nicer…read more

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Hard
· Deposits of limescale on kettles, irons, central
heating systems etc...
· Limescale build up and appliances become
less efficient and will need to be replaced
· Hard to lather soap…read more

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· Can be done by removing calcium and
magnesium ions
· You can add washing soda ­ sodium carbonate
· Use an ion exchange column
- Column coated with sodium ions
- Sodium displaces calcium and
magnesium ions in the water
- Water is now soft but is salty
- Some columns use hydrogen ions instead…read more

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