Grammar Constituent key terms

Key Terms for Grammar- I'm on the edexcel course but I'm assuming we all have similar key terms! Hope this helps

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  • Created on: 15-04-15 09:08
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Term Definition
Attributive Function An adjective premodifying a noun "a big book"
Predicative Function An adjective occurring alone as a complement "he is tall"
Intensifiers The premodifier to an adjective "very big, terribly small, extremely large"
Comparative Adjective Using `er' to express a contrast "bigger than, better than"
Superlative Adjective Using `more' or `most' to express an ultimate form of something "most talented"
Adverb Using `ly' to express how something was "horridly, beautifully"
Suffix Normal adjectives have no distinctive ending so there are a few suffixes which
indicate the word is an adjective "musical, hopeful, friendly, restless"
Central Adjective Identifies the adjective. It is gradable, comparative, superlative, attributive OR
predicative.
Peripheral Adjective Although the majority of adjectives can precede or follow a noun/pronoun, there
are small number which do not function like this, such as utter (you can say 'utter
rubbish' but not 'the rubbish is utter' ).
Postpositive Adjective Occur after the compound pronoun "B sharp"
Exclamation adjectives Used to excite something "marvellous!"
Proper Noun Names of specific people and places "Eiffel tower, Iona" (can stand alone, allow a
plural, used with determiners)
Common Noun A noun which refers to normal, everyday entities "sister, bucket"
Count Noun A type of common noun. Refer to individual, countable entities such as "books,
eggs"
Noncount Noun Another type of common noun. Undifferentiated mass such as "butter, music"
Also known as MASS nouns
Concrete Noun Refer to entities which can be observed and measured "butter, book"
Abstract Noun Unobservable notions "music, difficulty, hope"
Partitive noun "piece, bit, slice"
Singular noun form Number contrast being used to define whether it is a singular or plural form
Plural noun form Using the letter "s" to indicate that it is plural
Zero plural noun form Have no "s" at the end but is still plural "sheep, deer"
Compound Noun Combine two or more words into one. "babysitters", spoonful"
Verb Phrase The verb element in a clause structure that is made up of one of more verbs
which makes a verb phrase "I saw a Rocket"
Main Verb If a verb phrase consists of just one verb then it has a main verb "kissing"
Auxiliary Verb Accompanies the main verb "iskissing"
Full/ Lexical Verb A clear verb with a stateable meaning "run, jump, skip"
Modal Auxiliary Verb Expresses a range of judgements about how likely something is "might, shall,
perhaps"
Primary Verb Can be either main or auxiliary verbs. There are only 3 examples "be, have, do"
Regular Verb Appears in 4 forms: base form, -ing participle, -ed added to the end, -s form
Irregular Verb Have an unpredictable past tense or an unpredictable ­ed participle form, or
BOTH. These verbs change their base letters (removal of vowels "meet>met")
The vowel removal is also known as gradation
Seven classes of irregular 1. Around 20 verbs have their only irregular feature which is their ending is used
verbs for both their past and ­ed participle forms

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Continued 2. About 10 verbs have a regular past tense, but have to remove a consonant
such as "mown/mow>mowed"
3. Around 40 verbs have gradation occur in order to change into the past tense
"keep>kept"
4. About 75 verbs have an ­n ending when instead of the usual ­ed
"blew>blown"
5. Around 40 verbs have the same letter structure in all tenses "shut, let"
6. About 70 verbs have the same letter ending but have gradation when
changing into the past tense "spin>spun"
7.…read more

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Interrogative Pronoun Asks questions about personal and nonpersonal nouns "who, whom, what"
Demonstrative Pronoun Expresses contrast between "near" and "far" "this, these"
Indefinite Pronoun Expresses a less specific meaning than other pronouns.…read more

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Object They identify who or what has been directly affected by the action of the verb
"the boy smashed a window "
Complement Adds further information to about another clause element…read more

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