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The Pre-Verbal Stages: Vocal Development in the First Year of Life
Biological Noises (0-8 weeks): Vomiting, coughing, burping, crying, a low cooing sound, etc. These
are common to the whole human race, there are no Icelandic burps or Thai cries.
Cooing and Laughing (8-20 weeks): Produced when the…

Page 2

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Categorical: A child uses a word to cover a whole category of things e.g. using `dog' for all animals.
Analogical: A child uses a word to cover a group of things that share something in common such as
the shape or texture e.g. using the word `cat' for a woolly…

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Recurrence "more ball" Finds a second ball

Negation "no ball" Has lost the ball

Atchinson's "Pre-Ordained Programme"
In her book, The Articulate Mammal (1998), she publishes a table which suggest the average ages at
which most children reach a certain milestone in their acquisition of language.
Language Stage Beginning

Page 4

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Exaggerated intonation
Simpler constructions
Frequent imperatives
Frequent interrogatives
Use of personal names rather than pronouns (`mummy' not `I')
Simpler more restricted vocabulary
Diminutive forms like `doggie' and `moo-cow'
Concrete language referring to objects in the child's immediate environment
The thinking is that speaking slowly and using simple…

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Children are already programmed in some way to learn language
Chomsky believes we have a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) which gives us the ability to
put together sentences that have never been created before
Humans are wired for language ­ it's not just copied
Children make virtuous errors ­ they…

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Helps a child come to terms with and learn about its surroundings:
Heuristic: "what's that?" a child uses language to learn new things
Imaginative: "I'm a lion" a child uses language to create an imaginary environment and to play

John Dore's "Infant Language Functions"
Some find Halliday's system of…

Page 7

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Forming the Negative: A Summary
Stage 1 (2-3 words):
Child employs a simple rule: use NO or NOT and attach it to the beginning or the end of a
sentence e.g. "no wipe finger"
No modal auxiliaries
Main verb `to be' is absent
Stage 2 (3-4 words):
Most of the…

Page 8

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Increasingly able to name letters
Pretending/playing at reading
Stage 1: Initial Reading and Decoding (6-7):
Begin to learn the relationship between sounds and letters
Able to read simple texts comprising short, high-frequency words
Stage 2: Confirmation and Fluency (7-8):
Understand multiple points of view
Consolidate their decoding skills

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Use specific nouns like `poodle' instead of `dog'
Write in compound sentences
Begin to use commas and exclamation marks
Begin to use paragraphs
"Children have had experience with letters and print for several years now and beginning to use
letters in their own writing. Usually children start by experimenting…

Page 10

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In children's mistakes you will find a wealth of precision and creativity


Alex Judge


extremely useful and detailed, everything for CLA in here

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