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Understanding what AQA want from you.
What are the AOs?
AO1/24 *
AO1: Select and apply a range of linguistic methods, to communicate relevant knowledge using
appropriate terminology and coherent, accurate written expression.
Band 1: Systematic and evaluative exploration of data selecting appropriate linguistic methods
­ suitably tentative conclusions drawn. Accurate and perceptive linguistic knowledge.
Appropriate, controlled and accurate expression.…read more

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AO3 /8
AO3: Analyse and evaluate the influence of contextual factors on the production and reception
of spoken and written language, showing knowledge of the key constituents of language.
Band 1: Sensitive, consistently insightful awareness of purpose and audience ­ systematic
reference to salient features from writing and style models. Analytical and systematic
interpretation of context.
What that basically means: Context! Write about anything that may have influenced the text
that we can't see, or maybe we can see and WHY this matters.…read more

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There are two main themes that act as arguments in this course: nativists and behaviorists.
Nativist: Noam Chomsky
and behaviourist: B .F Skinner. To help you remember, a bunch of
behaviourists studied a chimp to learn about natural language acquisition to try and prove those
stubborn nativists wrong and decided to call their test subject Chimpsky. You can always relate
your essay or your points to one of these two ideas. Lets start... from before
birth.…read more

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Alan Cruttenden (1974) did a test on intonation and found that adults were m ore accurate a t
interpreting intonation compared to children under the age of 7. He did this by seeing if
adults and children could predict football results by listening to the scores.…read more

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Type of sound Voiced Unvoiced
Plosives (airflow stopped) p, t, k b, d, g
Fricatives (airflow only f, t, s, (sh), h v, ð (thy), z, (leisure)
partially blocked)…read more

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Affricatives (combining t (ch) d (judge)
plosives and fricatives)
Approximates (vowellike) w, r j
Nasals (air through nose) m, n,
Laterals (tongue on ridge l
of teeth)
Unvoiced sounds are harder for them to say than voiced sounds. Plosives are easiest, fricatives
are for the more advanced, affricatives are hardest.…read more

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Addition adding other letters to make "dog" becomes "dogu"
it easier to say
Assimilation Changing harder letters for "fish" becomes "bish"
easiertosay ones. (because they learn b before
Reduplication associations of objects and "cat" becomes "meow meow"
using these associations
Consonant Cluster reduction simplification of sound "sport" becomes "port",
BLEND "shower" becomes
"hower", "crush" becomes
Deletion of unstressed deletes the unstressed "banana" becomes "nana"
syllables syllables
Some kids don't even REALISE they're making these errors.…read more

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Kids language develops from protowords (words which aren't real but have meaning for them
and their carer) into holophrastic stage (1word stage) in which "up" can mean "look up" "pick
me up" or anything else.
The number of words they know at each age is shown below.…read more

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Naming (things or people) (Nouns)
2. Actions/events (Verbs)
3. Describing/modifying things (Adjectives/modifiers)
4. Personal/social words (Noun greeting/utterance)
60% were nouns (naming group), and 8% social.
First words are often concrete nouns. Content words develop first, then function words as for
children semantics>grammar.
Chomsky that guy we mentioned before who has a chimp named after him, focused on
grammatical development but does not explain how children link words semantically. Other
psychologists believe social interaction is how language is acquired such as B.F Skinner.…read more


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