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AQAEnglish

Language B A2 Child
Language Acquisition
Ultimate Study Guide

By Veena Chandar















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Understanding what AQA want from you.

What are the AOs?

AO1/24 *

AO1: Select and apply a range of linguistic methods, to communicate relevant knowledge using
appropriate terminology and coherent, accurate written expression.

Band 1: Systematic and evaluative exploration of data selecting appropriate linguistic methods
­ suitably tentative conclusions drawn.…

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*
AO3 /8

AO3: Analyse and evaluate the influence of contextual factors on the production and reception
of spoken and written language, showing knowledge of the key constituents of language.

Band 1: Sensitive, consistently insightful awareness of purpose and audience ­ systematic
reference to salient features from writing and style…

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Speech

There are two main themes that act as arguments in this course: nativists and behaviorists.
Nativist: Noam Chomsky
and behaviourist: B .F Skinner. To help you remember, a bunch of
behaviourists studied a chimp to learn about natural language acquisition to try and prove those
stubborn nativists wrong and…

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Phonology





Alan Cruttenden (1974) did a test on intonation and found that adults were m ore accurate a t
interpreting intonation compared to children under the age of 7. He did this by seeing if
adults and children could predict football results by listening to the scores.

You know how…

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Type of sound Voiced Unvoiced

Plosives (airflow stopped) p, t, k b, d, g






Fricatives (airflow only f, t, s, (sh), h v, ð (thy), z, (leisure)
partially blocked)

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Affricatives (combining t (ch) d (judge)
plosives and fricatives)





Approximates (vowellike) w, r j

Nasals (air through nose) m, n,

Laterals (tongue on ridge l
of teeth)

Unvoiced sounds are harder for them to say than voiced sounds. Plosives are easiest, fricatives
are for the more advanced, affricatives are hardest.…

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Addition adding other letters to make "dog" becomes "dogu"
it easier to say


Assimilation Changing harder letters for "fish" becomes "bish"
easiertosay ones. (because they learn b before
f)


Reduplication associations of objects and "cat" becomes "meow meow"
using these associations


Consonant Cluster reduction simplification of sound "sport" becomes "port",…

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Lexis
Kids language develops from protowords (words which aren't real but have meaning for them
and their carer) into holophrastic stage (1word stage) in which "up" can mean "look up" "pick
me up" or anything else.

The number of words they know at each age is shown below.


Age (years)…

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1. Naming (things or people) (Nouns)
2. Actions/events (Verbs)
3. Describing/modifying things (Adjectives/modifiers)
4. Personal/social words (Noun greeting/utterance)

60% were nouns (naming group), and 8% social.

First words are often concrete nouns. Content words develop first, then function words as for
children semantics>grammar.

Chomsky that guy we mentioned before who…

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