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A legislative proposal that has completed the legislative process and entered into law

Adversarial politics

A situation typical of twoparty systems, where the governing part is faced by an opposition that
provides a contrasting policy programme and tries to gain political advantage from government

Alternative vote…

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Barnett formula

A formula devised by Joel Barnett MP in 1978 which determines the relative levels of public
spending in England Scotland , Wales and northern Ireland

Bilateral meeting

A meeting between the prime minister and a departmental minister in which policy is agreed.


a legislative…

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Cabinet government

A system government in which executive power is vested in a cabinet, whose members exercise
collective responsibility, rather than single office

Catch all party

A political party with limited ideological conviction and a broad rather than classbased electoral


A status that recognises a…

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Civil Society

This refers to voluntary organisations within a state, such as political parties, pressure groups,
charities and clubs. Within the general boundaries of the law, they establish their own rules and
conventions. In liberal democracies they are seen as an essential element of a free society.



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Coalition government

Governments made up of more than one political party.

Codified constitution

The laws, rules and principles specifying how a state is to be governed and laid out in a single
constitutional document

Collective responsibility

The convention that all members of the government are collectively responsible…

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The policy that public bodies are compelled to open up contracts to provide services to outside

Consensus politics

A situation in which the main parties are in broad agreement on principles and, instead of offering
sharply contrasting programmes, seek support by claiming greater competence from their rivals.…

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Constitutional government

Government that operates with an agreed set of legal and political constraints

Constitutional monarchy

A political system in which the monarch is the formal head of state but the monarchs legal powers
are exercised by government ministers

Control order

A form of close house arrest…

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Core vote

Voters who feel a strong attachment to a political party and vote for it in election after election.

Critical election

An election that brings significant, longterm changes in party support.

Dealigned electorate

An electorate in which class identifies and party loyalties are weak.


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Direct rule

The government of northern Ireland from London, through special procedures at Westminster


A vote in parliament

Economic and momentary union

The creation of a single currency, central bal bank and single monetary policy

Economic model

Voters support the party most likely to…

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Electoral volatility

Significant changes in voting patterns from one election to another.

Enabling authorities

Local authorities that set the framework in which other bodies provide local services, but do not
provide all these services themselves


The expansion of the EU to include new member states



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