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Geography Revision

Glacial Landscapes & Processes

Processes of Glacial Erosion
Freezethaw Weathering
Water falls into cracks or joints in rocks
The water then freezes and causes the cracks to widen
Repeated freezethaw action causes the blocks of rock to eventually fall off
The loose blocks of…

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Landforms of Glacial Erosion
o Corries are deep circular hollows near mountain tops where glaciers are formed
o Formation:
Snow collect on a mountain side and is compressed into ice
Freezethaw weathering affects the back of the hollow and makes it steeper
Blocks of rock are pulled away from…

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Arêtes & Pyramidal Peaks
o Arêtes are twosided sharp edged ridges
o Formation
The back walls and sides of two corries are cut back by weathering and
The distance between the two corries is shortened until there's only a thin
knifeedged ridge left between them (i.e. the arête)

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The Glacial Trough
o The original Vshaped river valley is widened, steepened and straightened by the
glacier into a Ushaped valley
o Before there was any ice, the river erosion was confined to a small part of the valley
where the river was, but the glacier covers the whole valley…

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Landforms of Glacial Deposition
o Most of the rocks and smaller materials eroded by the glaciers are carried in the
bottom of the ice, as the glacier pushes forward, it melts more and more, this leaves
behind a trail of boulder clay (deposited material) which forms a hummocky surface…

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Formation of Terminal Moraine
o The glacier carries a large load of materials from erosion and weathering
o All the ice melts at the snout because of high temperatures
o The load is dropped and dumped because it can't be transported any further
o A ridge of boulder clay is…

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Human Activity in Upland Glaciated Areas
Cold weather reduces length of growing season which narrows possibilities of farming
More precipitation which is more likely to fall as snow
More cloud than sunshine
Not a lot for youths and therefore lots of young people would leave
Glacial erosion may strip…

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o More space and better shelter in glaciated valley than in river valley
o Glacier's load deposited on valley floor so soil has greater thickness and some soils
from boulder clay are quite fertile
o Valley floor used for:
Growing crops
Making hay
o Particularly if slope is facing…

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Management strategies
o Keep different groups as separate as possible
o Educate people about needs of other groups

River Landscapes & Processes
River Processes
Hydraulic power ­ the sheer force of the flowing water on the bed and banks, the force of
water removes material from the bed and…

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Traction ­ rocks and boulders are rolled along the river bed by the force of the water
Saltation ­ stones and pebbles bounce along the river bed as they hit each other and the
river channel
Suspension ­ fine particles of silt in the water, makes the river look…


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