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The Glacial Trough
o The original Vshaped river valley is widened, steepened and straightened by the
glacier into a Ushaped valley
o Before there was any ice, the river erosion was confined to a small part of the valley
where the river was, but the glacier covers the whole valley
o Therefore there is erosion on the valley floor and both of the valley sides
o So the Vshaped valley is changed into a Ushaped valley because abrasion and
plucking occurs everywhere where the ice…read more

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Landforms of Glacial Deposition
Moraines
o Most of the rocks and smaller materials eroded by the glaciers are carried in the
bottom of the ice, as the glacier pushes forward, it melts more and more, this leaves
behind a trail of boulder clay (deposited material) which forms a hummocky surface
called ground moraine
o Some material is carried on the sides of the glacier, this is called lateral moraine
o There is also some material carried in the middle of the glacier, this is called…read more

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Formation of Terminal Moraine
o The glacier carries a large load of materials from erosion and weathering
o All the ice melts at the snout because of high temperatures
o The load is dropped and dumped because it can't be transported any further
o A ridge of boulder clay is built up across the low ground
o The longer the glacier stops in the same position, the higher the ridge becomes
Boulder Clay (Glacial Till)
o This is clay which contains numerous boulders
o It…read more

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Human Activity in Upland Glaciated Areas
Difficulties
Cold weather reduces length of growing season which narrows possibilities of farming
More precipitation which is more likely to fall as snow
More cloud than sunshine
Not a lot for youths and therefore lots of young people would leave
Glacial erosion may strip the land of its soil so farming may not be possible
Glacial erosion also creates steep valley sides which means that access is very difficult
Possibilities for Settlement & Use
Farming & Forestry
o Valley…read more

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More space and better shelter in glaciated valley than in river valley
o Glacier's load deposited on valley floor so soil has greater thickness and some soils
from boulder clay are quite fertile
o Valley floor used for:
Growing crops
Silage
Making hay
o Particularly if slope is facing south because more warmth from sun
o Lower parts of valley used for cattle rearing
o Sheep rearing dominates steep slopes and moorlands
o Farming in upland areas is described as marginal because difficult for farmers…read more

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Transportation
Traction ­ rocks and boulders are rolled along the river bed by the force of the water
Saltation ­ stones and pebbles bounce along the river bed as they hit each other and the
river channel
Suspension ­ fine particles of silt in the water, makes the river look cloudy
Solution ­ minerals dissolved in the water
Deposition
When a river slows down, it loses energy and discharges its load
A river loses energy when discharge falls, or when it reaches the sea
The…read more

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