Geography B, Dynamic Planet, Unit 5: Coastal Change and Conflict (Revision to A*!)

Revision material that I've made and got full marks on the exam with. Hope you like it!


Keywords, types of coastlines, types of rock, long shore drift, landforms, sub-aerial processes, hard engineering, soft engineering, coastal retreat case studies

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  • Created by: Belvast
  • Created on: 24-10-13 21:24
Preview of Geography B, Dynamic Planet, Unit 5: Coastal Change and Conflict (Revision to A*!)

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Hydraulic Action - Air may become trapped in joints and cracks on a cliff face. When a wave breaks, the trapped air is
compressed which weakens the cliff and causes erosion.
Abrasion ­ Bits of rock and sand in waves grind down cliff surfaces by friction
Attrition ­ Waves smash rocks and pebbles on the shore into each other, and they break and become smoother.
Corrosion ­ Chemicals (salts) eroding away the rock of the cliff
Fetch - How far the wave has travelled.
Sub-aerial processes list: Mechanical/Chemical/Biological (rocks breaking rocks) Weathering, mass movement (slumping)

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Concordant and Discordant coastlines
A concordant coastline occurs where the bands of differing rock types run parallel to the coast. The outer
hard rock (e.g. granite, limestone, chalk) provides a protective barrier to erosion of the softer rocks (e.g. clays)
further inland.
Sometimes the outer hard rock is punctured allowing the sea to erode the softer rocks behind. This creates
a cove which is a circular area of water with a relatively narrow entrance way from the sea.…read more

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A discordant coastline occurs where bands of differing rock type run perpendicular to the coast. The
differing resistance to erosion leads to the formation of headlands and bays. A hard rock type such as
granite is resistant to erosion and creates a headland whilst a softer rock type is easily eroded creating a
An example of a discordant coastline is at Swanage Bay. It has Ballard Point made of chalk to the north and
Durlston Head made of limestone to the south.…read more

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Long shore drift & Waves
Waves can approach the coast at an angle because of the direction of the prevailing wind. The swash of the waves
carries material up the beach at an angle. The backwash then flows back to the sea in a straight line at 90°. This
movement of material is called transportation.
Continual swash and backwash transports material sideways along the coast. This movement of material is called long
shore drift and occurs in a zigzag.
Waves can be destructive or constructive.…read more

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Diffraction ­ The `bending' of a wave front as it goes out at a great speed (as waves travel faster in deep
water) of the deep water to shallow water.
Characteristic Landforms (by Long Shore Drift)
Depositional landforms such as beach ­ Material eroded by cliffs, gets to the coast by rivers and moved along the coast by
longshore drift. An example of a spit is spurn head.…read more

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Sub-aerial processes
Mechanical weathering
Frost weathering:
Some types of rocks are porous (aquifer), which means that the water
just soaks into them as it would to a sponge. These types of
rocks are especially prone to frost weathering.
Chemical Weathering:
Explain the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering.
Chemical occurs when chemical reactions dissolve the minerals in rock where as mechanical is a physical process
changing rock's chemical structure.…read more

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Coastal erosion landforms
Hard Engineering…read more

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Sea wall
Made of stone or concrete. Reflects waves and withstand waves breaking on it.
Advantages: Effective, lasts a long time.
Disadvantages: Expensive, ugly, will break down and erode eventually
Sloping wooden or concentrate wall which absorb the waves energy.
Advtanages: Effective, cheaper than sea wall
Disadvantages: Expensive, will break down and erode eventually, not suitable for strong waves
unless from concentrate.
A wire cage full of rocks that absorbs the wave's energy.…read more

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· Cheapest solution.
· There will be an increase in the amount of salt marshes.
Salt marshes provide: Protection from erosion and flooding as they reduce wave energy ­ land, buildings and
homes saved, a habitat for birds and wildlife.
· Creates recreational opportunities e.g. kite surfing in the salt marsh so increasing the amenity value of the
· Works only on low land.
· People may live where land and buildings are likely to be lost.…read more

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Integrated Coastal Zone Management
ICZM identifies if the area needs protection or is best to left unmanaged.
Takes into account: Economics, environment and people.
Aims: sustainable action
The choices:
· Hold the line: use sea defences to stop the coastline shrinking further (very
· Advance the line: use sea defences to move the coastline out to sea (very expensive)
· Managed Retreat: gradually let the coast erode and move people and businesses back.…read more



So helpful! I've been forced to do foundation but i'll let you know my results!

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