Geography B, Dynamic Planet, Unit 5: Coastal Change and Conflict (Revision to A*!)

Revision material that I've made and got full marks on the exam with. Hope you like it!


Keywords, types of coastlines, types of rock, long shore drift, landforms, sub-aerial processes, hard engineering, soft engineering, coastal retreat case studies

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Hydraulic Action - Air may become trapped in joints and cracks on a cliff face. When a wave breaks, the trapped air is
compressed which weakens the cliff and causes erosion.
Abrasion ­ Bits of rock and sand in waves grind down cliff surfaces by friction
Attrition ­…

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Concordant and Discordant coastlines

A concordant coastline occurs where the bands of differing rock types run parallel to the coast. The outer
hard rock (e.g. granite, limestone, chalk) provides a protective barrier to erosion of the softer rocks (e.g. clays)
further inland.

Sometimes the outer hard rock is punctured allowing…

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A discordant coastline occurs where bands of differing rock type run perpendicular to the coast. The
differing resistance to erosion leads to the formation of headlands and bays. A hard rock type such as
granite is resistant to erosion and creates a headland whilst a softer rock type is easily…

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Long shore drift & Waves

Waves can approach the coast at an angle because of the direction of the prevailing wind. The swash of the waves
carries material up the beach at an angle. The backwash then flows back to the sea in a straight line at 90°. This

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Diffraction ­ The `bending' of a wave front as it goes out at a great speed (as waves travel faster in deep
water) of the deep water to shallow water.

Characteristic Landforms (by Long Shore Drift)
Depositional landforms such as beach ­ Material eroded by cliffs, gets to the coast…

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Sub-aerial processes

Mechanical weathering

Frost weathering:

Some types of rocks are porous (aquifer), which means that the water
just soaks into them as it would to a sponge. These types of
rocks are especially prone to frost weathering.

Chemical Weathering:

Explain the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering.

Chemical occurs…

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Coastal erosion landforms

Hard Engineering

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Sea wall
Made of stone or concrete. Reflects waves and withstand waves breaking on it.
Advantages: Effective, lasts a long time.
Disadvantages: Expensive, ugly, will break down and erode eventually

Sloping wooden or concentrate wall which absorb the waves energy.
Advtanages: Effective, cheaper than sea wall
Disadvantages: Expensive, will…

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· Cheapest solution.
· There will be an increase in the amount of salt marshes.
Salt marshes provide: Protection from erosion and flooding as they reduce wave energy ­ land, buildings and
homes saved, a habitat for birds and wildlife.
· Creates recreational opportunities e.g. kite surfing in the…

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Integrated Coastal Zone Management
ICZM identifies if the area needs protection or is best to left unmanaged.
Takes into account: Economics, environment and people.
Aims: sustainable action

The choices:

· Hold the line: use sea defences to stop the coastline shrinking further (very
· Advance the line: use sea…




So helpful! I've been forced to do foundation but i'll let you know my results!

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