Geography AS Case Study Cards

All case studies of Unit 1 appart from the 2 migration studies, and all my Unit 2 appart from feildwork and research.

Includes 4 per page (fold vertically and cut in half)

- Volcanoes (Pinatubo, St Helens)

- Eathquakes (Japan, Kashmir)

- Landslides (China, Kashmir)

- Floods (Midwestern American, Bihar)

- Drought (Africa, Australia Big Dry)

- Tropical Storms (Hurricane Katrina, Typhoon Haiyan)

- Megacities (LA, Mumbai, Cuririba)

- Avalanches (MT Huascaran, Galtur)

- Climate change (Africa, Arctic, Bangladesh, Tuvalu)

- Hazard hot spots (Philippines, California)

- Globalisation (Volkswagen, Tesco)

- Rebranding (Glasgow 2014, Liverpool 2008, London 2012, Northwood Hills + Curitba)

- Extreme weather (European Heat waves + Bihar, Pakistan, Katrina, Haiyan, Australia Africa etc)

Apologies if there are any mistakes or mispelt words. Please not the case studies can be used for both units.

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MEDC
Date :
China
2010
L LEDC
Date :
Kashmir
2005 (after quake)
L
Time : midnight Time : After the earthquake
Where : Gansu Where : Pakistani Kashmir
Cause : HEP power plant Cause : Earthquake
Amount moved: 1,800,000 m² of mud and rocks Amount moved : ------
Cost : $30 billion Coast : $5.2 billion
Death : 1,270 Death : 75,000
Impacts: · Flooding Impacts: · Building Collapse
· Submersion · Land liquefaction
· Debris flow · Disease
· Blocks of houses swept away · 300,000 miles affected
· Forest and ecosystem · Education decline
destruction · Homelessness
· 66% country left without power
AID/ Management : · Refugee camps
AID/ Management : · Debris clear up · Better healthcare
· Landscape disinfection · Reconstruction
· Reconstruction of dam
MEDC
Date :
Galtür
1999
A LEDC
Date :
Mt Huascaran
1997
A
Where : Austria Where : Peru
Cause(s) : · 270 cm of snowfall Cause : 7.8 earthquake
· Weak snow on top of existing
Amount moved : 16.5 km² of snow
snow pack
· Temp rose 5° then fell back to Deaths : 20,000
0° Event : · 210-280 kmph
· High wind speeds · Liquefied into 50-100 km² of
Amount moved : 300,000 tonnes water, mud and ice
Death : 31 Impacts: · Buried towns of Ranrachira and
Yungay
Event : · Powder snow
· 186mph AID/ Management : · Reconstruction
· Took 50 seconds to reach
Galtür
Impacts: · 7 buildings destroyed
· Asphyxiation
· 57 people buried
AID/ Management : · Reconstruction…read more

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MEDC Hurricane Katrina
Date : 2005
TS LEDC Typhoon Haiyan
Date : 2013
TS
Time : Early morning Where Formed: Micronesia, Pacific Ocean
Where formed: Atlantic Ocean Where Affected: 4 countries ­ Philippines, Vietnam,
Where affected: Gulf of Mexico USA Micronesia and South China
Category @PI: 5 Category @PI : 5
Wind speed: 100-140mph Wind speed: 145 mph
Cost: $100 billion Cost: $2.86 billion
Death: 1,836 Death: 6,340
Impacts: · >1 million people redistributed Impacts: · Famine
· Population in new Orleans · Homelessness (6million)
halved (redistribution) · Freed convicts (raped women)
· Racial tensions · Work displacement
· 30 oil platforms destroyed · Extreme flooding
· Infrastructure destroyed · Low air quality
· 1.3 acres of farmland destroyed · Huge oil spill ­ fractional
costing $5billion distillation unit knocked over
· Beach erosion · Spread of cholera
· Habitats destroyed · Mangroves destroyed
· Oil spills ­ 43 day clean up AID/ Management : · $31 billion of aid
AID/ Management : · $500 million international aid · Hong Kong sent prediction
· FEMA ­ housing /food for warning
victims
· US Military evacuated people
MEDC Midwestern America
Date : 2008
F LEDC
Date :
Bihar
2008
F
Where : Iowa and Cedar Rapids, Mississippi Where : Indo-Nepal boarder
river
Cause : · Monsoon season
Cause : · Tornado funnel broke levees · Man made embankments
· Water levels rose by 4m · Climate change
· Deforestation
Cost : $6 billion
Cost : · $542 million
Death : 13
Death : · 1800
Impacts: · Mass flooding
· Houses swept away Impacts: · Destroyed 70% of rice trade
· 4,000 homes evacuated · Infrastructure destroyed
· Cars submerged · Kosi river pollution
· Iowa out of power water · Land saturation
flooded the electricity plant · Drinking water shortages
· Diseases spread (cholera)
AID/ Management : · FEMA assessed damages
· Reconstruction AID/ Management : · Reconstruction
· Water drainage · Water Aid provided safe
drinking water…read more

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Africa CC Arctic CC
Where : Coastal zones Where : Everywhere
Causes : · Temp risen by 3.5° from 1985 Causes : · Albedo effect (greenhouse
Impacts (predicted) : · 50 % reduction in agricultural effect, sun reflects off ice
yields doesn't go into space)
· Increased water stress Impacts (predicted) : · New oil field accessible
· 5-8% increase in aridity · Polar bears forced into towns
· Increase in debt (cycle of debt · More animal parasites
from aid) · Possible ice ace if fresh water
· Increased flora and fauna goes into the gulf stream
Risks (vulnerability) : · 56 million people now live in · More storms
coastal zones · Coastal erosion
· Large population · Eustatic change
· Large poverty levels · Food web depletion
· Corrupt governments · Habitat depletion
· Mostly LEDCs Risks (vulnerability) : · Habitat decline
· Low capacity of cope · Fresh water into gulf stream
· Not earthy thermohaline converyerbelt
· High vulnerability ice age
· Human and animal deaths
MEDC Australian `Big Dry'
Date : 2002 ­ 2010
D LEDC
Date :
Africa - Sahel
1980 ­ present
D
Where : Australia, Murray ­ Darling basin Where : Sahel, Africa (Somalia)
Causes : · El Nino/climate change Causes : · Climate change
· 1C temperature rise · El Nino
· High pressure belts · Dry seasons
· Hole in ozone layer
Cost : $77 billion
Cost : AU$15 million
Death 558,565 (accounted for)
Deaths : 90 per year
Impacts: · Desertification
Impacts: · Food, energy and water prices · Water scarcity
rose 20 % · Disease spread
· Major agricultural decline ­ 1% · Famine
GDP drop · Crop shortages and failure ­ no
· Desertification exports
· HEP plants shut down · Drop in GDP
· Salinity increases led to animal · 50% unemployment
migration (agriculture is main sector)
· Decline in water and food · Aid reliance
quality · Habitat destruction
· Severe wild fires · Soil erosion
· 1 in 4 farms closed ­ profits lost · Food prices rose
· More money spent on imports
AID/ Management : · Somalia Water and Land
AID/ Management : · 3 minute showers to conserve Information Management
water scheme
· Hose pipe ban · Berkads ­ stone underground
· Seawater desalination schemes water tanks supplies and
· Rainwater harvesting irrigates for dry season
· National Plan for Water · Rainwater harvesting
Security · Bunds ­ packaged stones to
control surface un off…read more

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MEDC California HS LEDC Philippines HS
Earthquakes: Loma Prieta 1989 Earthquakes: Double quake 2013
· San Andreas fault line · Destructive plate boundary
(conservative) · Large area of fault lines
· 70% of population on it · 100% risk
· 2-3 events per year · Happen every day but most are
too small to measure
Drought 3 Year drought ­ 2007- 2009
· General magnitude of 6
· Anticyclones
Volcanoes Mt Pinatubo 1991
· La Nina
· Westward desert winds · Ring of Fire (destructive)
· Increasing lack of water supply · 18/37 volcanoes active
· Common VEI of 5
Wild fires Rim Fire - 2007
Landslides Leyte Island 2006
· Wild fire season
· Droughts · Torrential rain = surface runoff
· Westward desert wind · Triggered by earthquakes/
· Santa Ana windstorms volcanoes
· Reduced soil quality
Flooding Christmas Day 1997
· Land use changes - urbanisation
· El Nino
Typhoons Typhoon Haiyan - 2013
· River erosion
· Worsened with eustatic change · Develop over Pacific and move
westwards
Management (AID) CEMA
· Prone to 10 every year
California Emergency Management · Storm season = June ­ Nov
Agency
Management (AID) CAS ­ The Philippines Country
Assistance Strategy
World bank aid scheme and
support
MEDC Tuvalu CC LEDC Dhaka - BangladeshCC
Where : South Pacific Island Where : Asia, Bangladesh
Cause : · Climate change Cause : · 25% is less than 1m above sea
· Highest point only 5m above level
sea level · Seasonal floods, rivers burst
· Low elevation zone banks
· Tropical cyclones
Impacts: · Flooding
· Himalayan snow melt
· Saline water failing crops
· Water comes up through the Impacts: · Flooding
ground · Crop failure from saline water
AID/ Management : · Producing salt water crops
· Using flood defences AID/ Management : · Houses are on stilts
· Houses on stilts · Levee construction
· Building river banks up
· Monitored water levels by The
Flood Action Plan (funded by
the World Bank)…read more

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Tertiary Tesco GL Secondary Volkswagen GL
Founded : 1929 Founded : 1937
Where (HQ) : UK, Chesnutt Where (HQ) : Germany, Wolfsburg
Where (operates) : 13 other countries Where (operates) : 24 other countries
Employees : 400,000 Employees : 500,000
Impacts on operating country : · More variety of products Impacts on operating country : · More jobs
· More jobs · More cooperation tax
· More cooperation tax · Induces human development
· Induces human development
Impacts on Germany: · More (better paid) tertiary and
Impacts on UK: · More variety of cultural quaternary sector jobs
products · More profits
· More (better paid) tertiary and · More efficient sources of
quaternary sector jobs income
· Expands the company even
Impacts on TNC: · More tax to pay
more
· Exploited workforce
· Expansion could collapse Impacts on TNC: · More tax to pay
· Loss of profits · Loss of profits due to
· Loss of UK customers investment
· Rejection of new products · More profits
· More contrasting skills sets to
aid expansion
Jobs outsourced to Bangalore, India · Cheaper workforce
· Qualified and English speaking
· More profits made Mergers with other car companies · Expansion
· Call centre · More profits
· Better jobs for England · Better quality of products
· Induces development in LECDs
MEDC LA MC LEDC Mumbai MC
Where : Los Angeles, USA Where : Mumbai, India
Cause of growth : · 1876 railways built (500,000 people arrived in Cause of growth: · Home to India's financial sector (10% of all
40 years) factory employment and 40% of India's foreign
· Discovery of oil trade)
· Opening of Ford car manufacturing plant · Bollywood movie industry
· Development of film industry and `Hollywood' · Rapid urbanisation from 1950's
· General urbanisation · Was a British empire port
· rise in the population of Mumbai, from 8 million
Impacts: · Suburbanisation
in 1971 to 21 million 2013
· Large difference between inner city and
suburbs Impacts: · Strain on resources
· Racism and unfair trade (riots in 1965) · Dharavi slum (1 million people per sq. mile)
· BD growth and no redevelopment · 4,000 cases of typhoid and diphtheria per day
· Housing shortages · Large amounts of litter pollution
· Deindustrialisation · Famine
· Loss of secondary sector · Open sewers
· 10 million cars used and only 30% use public · Water shortages
transport · More jobs ­ 80% of people employed
· Migrants excluded from health and education · No healthcare
services due to expenses · 80% of plastic waste is recycled
· 24 million people produce 50000 tonnes of · Suburbanisation
waste per day · Large poor to wealth ratio
· Massive energy usage and dependency.…read more

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