POPULATION - GEOGRAPHY

AS Level AQA Geography

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Key Terms:

Key Terms:

-- Birth Rate = number births/1000

-- Death Rate = number of deaths/1000

-- Natural Change

-- Life Expectancy = Average number of yrs a person can expect to live

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Causes of Growth

Both natural change and migration affects growth.

-Health - Diseases, Birth Control yes/no, IMR, Diet, Malnutrition, Doctor Numbers

-Education - Health Education, Education Level, Literacy Levels, Leaving Age

-Social Provisions - Elderly Care, Water Supply, radio, media, GDP

-Cultural Factors - religious attitudes to contraception, status gain from children role of women in society.

- Political Factors - Taxation to support services, economy strength, war, conflict, health-care, contraception

- Environmental factors - Natural Hazards, environmental conditions that spread disease.

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Measurement of Change

Most countries collect population data in a CENSUS (+Other Data)

- Collected every 10 yrs,

- Information goes to: Governments (basis for allocation of resources eg health) and Non-Governmental Groups (eg Retailers (eg for advertisement))

- Some object to census as they say they are an invasion of privacy.

- At government level the census records trends in 10yr periods, helps with planning, housing estimate demands, prediction of population change, public transport.

- For business level it finds links to spending+location. Targeted postcode marketing, Insurance risks, food/product distribution, allows investment in optimum locations.

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Fertlity:

If the birth rate exceeds the death and migration rates population will increase.

This Depends On:

Country/religious traditions

Education for Women

Aging or youth population

Social Class

Religious Attitudes

Economic factors/rewards

Political factors (eg Italy = Reward, China = Fine)

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Growth in LEDCs - LEDCs have a high amount of YOUN

Most LEDCs in Stage 2 of the DTM (and some in stage 3)

Fastest Growth is in the poorer LEDCs.

Therefore the greatest fall in fertility rates is expected here.

Average growth rate is 1.8% (excluding china).

Improving healthcare so death rate is decreasing.

Limited access to family planning.

Some planning measures not religiously or culturally accepted.

Children = valuable source of labour and income as they can work on land from early age so people have more.

Children care for younger children and elderly.

IMR tends to be higher so more will die at a young age.

Traditional/Culturally important to have a large family.

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Growth in LEDCs Continued

Children care for younger children and elderly.

IMR tends to be higher so more will die at a young age.

Traditional/Culturally important to have a large family.

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---LEDCs have a high amount of YOUNG--- ---------DEPENDENTS normally---------

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Youthful Populations

!!HIGH AMOUNTS OF YOUNG DEPENDENTS!!

- Under the age of 15.

- Healthcare - Young need healthcare which is expensive for a country to provide (eg for immunisations).

- Education - Schools and Teachers are expensive.

- Education - Lesson resources difficult to access and costly to buy.

- Future -More children will be of child bearing age putting pressure on health services.

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CHINA - CASE STUDY

+ 1970 Government introduced several schemes to reduce the population - the main one being the one child policy.

+ 1950 the population change rate was 1.9% (3% will double a countries population in 24yrs)

+ Previously the government had encouraged people to have many children

ONE CHILD POLICY -

+ Established 1979 - only 1 child allowed per couple

+ Pro's = Access to education for all, Child and Health care for those who followed.

+ Con's = Those who didn't abide fined and didn't get the Pro's, Policy resisted in rural areas where its tradition to have large families, Enforced strictly in Urban areas but harder to control in rural areas, Many claim women pregnant after one child where forced to have an abortion and be forcibly sterilised.

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One Child Policy Continued:

IMPACTS:

  • Population growth now 0.7%
  • Large number of female babies homeless or in orphanages and some killed due to boys traditional preferences for boys
  • In Yr2000 90% of all aborted foetuses where female
  • Gender balance is therefore distorted
  • Men now out number women by 60million in entire China
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One Child Policy Continued:

Long Term Implications:

Policy has been relaxced in recent years so that couples can allpy to have a second child only if:

  • They are both only child's
  • If the first is a girl

Population now rising more slowly.

Total population now 1.3Billion (2008est).

New problems are now faced like:

  • The falling birth rate = Rise in the relative number of elderly people
  • Fewer people of working age to support the growing number of ELDERLY DEPENDENTS
  • China is likely to have an AGEING POPULATION in the future
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Population change in MEDCs

Most MEDCs are experencing slow rates of population growth and some are declining.

Most MEDCs are in the D.T.M.

Population is high with a very low death rate and a very low rate of natural increase.

Average life expectancy is increasing due to:

  • Improvements in healthcare
  • Increased leisure and recreation time
  • improved knowledge about the importance of a balanced diet/exercise
  • Improved Living standards and QoL (Quality of Life)

Birth Rate are decreasing due to:

  • People choosing to have children later in life resulting in smaller family sizes because they are not able to concieve for as long after choosing to have a child
  • Contraception readily available and understood
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Population Growth in MEDCs - Ageing Populations

  • People are living longer causing a rise in elderly dependents
  • This means a higher proportion of the population is over 65
  • As birth rates fall, people have smaller families so while the number of elderly dependents increase the number of young dependents decrease.

  • Therefore in the near future it means there will be less econaomically active people to support these elderly dependents.
  • To balance out aging populations some countries adopt pro-natalist policys to encourage people to have more childrens by giving them benefits.
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ITALY - CASE STUDY

MORE CARDS TO BE ADDED SOON!

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Comments

Emily Jeeves

very helpful! :)

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