Geography A2 Contested Planet Case Studies (EDEXCEL)

Extra space for additional case studies, pretty much all 6 topics in the contested planet section, enjoy :)

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(1) Energy Security
Case Study Country Summary
Energy Crisis USA Oil being consumed rapidly by the
large population, but it's own
personal supply is thinning, so if the
price rises it threatens the economy
by making everything else more
expensive. It's consumption is huge ­
almost 25% of world supplies per
year, an increasing reliance on
imports, and a population that's not
willing to pay more for their energy.
Barrels of oil have gone from $20 to
$200 (tenfold) in the last decade.
Energy Crisis California, USA Severe power shortages and had to
cause a number of rolling blackouts
(powercuts) to relieve the strain on
the electricity grid. It only produces
5% of the electricity in America and
imports more than any other state.
June 2000 ­ May 2001 suffered series
of energy blackouts because:
The weather (v. hot summer,
v. cold winter)
Insufficient generating
Deregulation of the power
Low-carbon futures California, USA By 2010, the state wanted to have
20% of it's electricity from renewable
sources, e.g. solar power. Laws into
decreasing CO2 emissions by
introducing first low-carbon standard
transportation oil.
Recycling Energy West Virginia Alloys (WVA), WVA entered an agreement with
Charleston, USA Recycled Energy Development (RED)
to recycle energy, reduce GHG
emissions and improve efficiency.
E.ON ­ new power station Kent, UK Plans to build two new coal-fired
construction power stations to replace the existing
one due to close in 2015. Claims that
these replacements will be 20%
cleaner: people unhappy with this
Nuclear power and public perceptions UK All but 1 nuclear power station set to
close by 2023 however govt.
announced plans to replace existing
ones to secure Britain's energy
security. However, many British

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Micro-hydro projects Kenya 96% of the Kenyan population have
no access to electricity and families
spent at least 1/3 of income on
kerosene for lighting and diesel for
milling grain. Women's role ­ hours
collecting wood and dung etc. The
Tungu-Kabri Micro-hydro power
project (UN funded & developed by
PracticalAction) harnesses the energy
of falling water to generate
electricity. It's cheap, sustainable and
small scale but generates enough
electricity to benefit around 1000
people.…read more

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UK's gas
likely to increase, 80% to Western
Europe. Employment opportunities
(432000 people in 2006)
UN Law of the Sea Convention Arctic The 8 Arctic States are allowed to
exploit offshore resources within 200
natural miles of their territory. Russia's
tried to extend their territory but it
was rejected ­ a choke point.
The Lomonosov Ridge Arctic 100 miles wide and 1240 miles long,
zig-zagging through the ocean
between Greenland and Russia.
Above the ridge = 1000m deep.
Below the ridge = 5000m deep.…read more

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Renewable Energy New Zealand New Zealand aims to get 90% of its
electricity from renewable sources by
2025, having achieved 70% by 2007
Decentralising energy generation Woking By decentralising energy generation
and developing local generators and
energy efficiency measures, they
hope to cut CO2 emissions by 82% and
energy consumption by 52%. Doing
this with solar panels, combined heat
and power, investments of £12mil
(saving £5.4mil in energy bills), low
carbon homes initiative
Road Tax UK 2010-2011 ­ 9.…read more

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Water Conflicts
Case study Country Summary
UN World Water Development n/a Warned the balance between human demand
Report and the availability of water was at a
precarious point.
World Water Forum n/a In 2000, water security was established as a
key issue for the 21st century. The QOL
depends on water resources and misuse
(becoming more common) is leading to the
contamination of the supply
Water Pressure India & China 1. India ­ 4% of the world's freshwater
with 16% of the population.…read more

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Euphrates which is strongly opposed by Syria
and Iraq
Water Conflicts India & Bangladesh A series of dams to divert water into
irrigation systems and many of India's
megacities use the river to carry wastewater
and industrial sources ­ Bangladesh the loser
deprived of much-needed water and suffers
effects of increasing pollution/contamination
of the supply. India in control of both Ganges
and Brahmaputra and plans are being drawn
for both of these rivers.…read more

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Farakka dam,
groundwater polluted by arsenic,
river floods increase & saltwater
The Three Gorges Project China World's largest hydroelectric scheme. China's
current reliance on coal-fired power stations
(70%), HEP is much cleaner which could
support rapid industrial growth.
Saving 50million tonnes of coal each
Supply water to region of China
responsible for 22% of GDP
Flood protection saves lives and cuts
financial losses
Drown 100,000 hectares of arable
land, 13 cities and 1500 factories
1.…read more

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Biodiversity Under Threat
Case Study Country Summary
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Arctic / Northern Alaska Vast, wild, unspoilt and pristine place
(ANWR) that's known as America's Serengeti
because it's the most biologically
diverse Arctic region. 1.5million acres
of Coastal plain are not protected as
Wilderness like the other part and it
could be opened up for oil
exploration and drilling.…read more

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western swamp turtle is one of the
most threatened freshwater turtle
species in the world. Threats include:
agricultural expansion, development
of oil refineries on the coast and the
introduction of alien species
Atlantic Forest Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina 20,000 plant species and 950 species
of birds, yet less than 10% of the
original forest remains. 24 critically
endangered vertebrate species are
clinging to survival in this region.…read more

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Targeted response options discussed.
Positive outcomes:
Protected area coverage
doubled over the last 20 yrs;
terrestrial protection now
covers over 12% of the
Earth's land surface
Water quality in rivers in
Europe, N.America and Latin
America has improved since
Millennium Development Goals n/a
Fynbos South Africa Major vegetation type of the small
botanical region in S.A. known as the
Cape Floral Kingdom, of which there
are only 5 more. It has the highest
concentration of plant species at
1300 per 10,000km3.…read more



this is amazing thank you, do you by any chance have similar for super powers?



Hartati Medina

Fantastic resource, but the case studies for "Superpowers" is missing!




you forgot the Ethiopia/Canada case study for Water Conflicts :/ though


It's good, but for the very highest grades you need more statistics about each case study. Eg, 30% California's fresh water comes from aquifers. :-)

Anna Partridge

thank you so much! i really want to just buy you some kind of present

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