Extreme Weather Revision Cards

  • Created by: Alisha
  • Created on: 29-06-14 19:59
Extreme Weather
Weather which can be described as severe, unexpected or at record levels
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Immediate disastrous weather event
Hurricane or tornado
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Consequential/subsequent hazard
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Longer term trend
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Tropical Storm
Large, violent revolving storms associated with hurricane force winds and torrential rain
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Temperate Storms
Large, mobile, low pressure system that bring heavy rain and gale force winds
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Violently rotating, funnel shaped columns of air in contact with the ground
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River Floods
Rivers overflowing their banks because of excessive rainfall or rapid snowmelt
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Heavy snowfall driven by strong winds
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Severe winter weather
prolonged spells of abnormally low temperature and/or snow cover
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Heat waves
prolonged spells of abnormally high temperatures (e.g. above 30 degrees Celsius)
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Severe forest and shrub fires devastating extensive areas
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Prolonged spells of abnormally low rainfall
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Air Mass (continental, maritime, tropical and polar)
Large body of air with similar temperature and moisture properties throughout. e.g. over land (dry), over water (wet), cold and warm
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Air pressure
Force of air pressing down on Earth's surface
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Region of low atmospheric pressure brings wind and precipitation
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Region of high atmospheric pressure brings dry, hot weather or cold, frost and mist
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Lines which join up areas of same pressure on a map
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Weather Front
Occur where two different air masses meet
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Warm Front
Formed when warm air rises over a mass of cold air. Produces steady rainfall.
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Cold Front
Transition zone where cold air is replaced by warm air, cold air follows warm air and gradually moves underneath producing heavy rainfall
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Occluded Front
Point where cold/warm front takes over warm/cold front, produces changeable weather conditions.
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Cold Occlusion
Cold front moves under warm front
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Warm Occlusion
Cold front moves over warm front
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Synoptic Charts
Weather map which provides information of distribution, ,ovement and patterns of air pressure, rainfall, wind and temperature, conveyed using symbols and explained using a legend.
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Storm Hydrograph
Shows changes in rainfall and river discharge overtime
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Convectional rainfall
Occurs when: surface of the Earth is heated, warm surface heats the air above it causing it to rise. As the air rises it begins to cool and condense and forms clouds. Tends to produce cumulonimbus clouds, so heavy rain and thunder and lightening
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Frontal Rainfall
Occurs when: two air masses meet (warm and cold), warm air is forced over denser cold air. warm air cools and condenses and rain is formed. produces a variety of clouds and moderate to heavy rainfall
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Relief Rainfall
Occurs when: prevailing winds pick up moisture from the sea, moist air reaches coast and is forced to rise by mountains/hills. This forces air to cool and form clouds, moisture is dropped as rain
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Rain Shadow
Area behind mountains gets little rain as it drops over mountains
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Jet Stream
Very strong winds which move weather systems around the globe
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El Nino
Change in circulation of currents in the Pacific Ocean. Circulation is reversed causing droughts in Australia and floods in South America.
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La Nina
Change in circulation of currents in the Pacific Ocean. Circulation is like normal but intensified. Australia gets flooding and South America gets drought.
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Size of event
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How often an event of certain magnitude occurs
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Risk Equation
Hazard x Vulnerability/ capacity to cope
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Modifying event
Attempting to control environment and causes of event
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Modify Vulnerability
Combination of technology to monitor and predict extreme weather events and strategies to improve community preparedness
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Modify Loss
Insurance in richer countries and long term air in poorer countries
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Attempt to stop hurricane by super cooling water in outer rain bands to freeze causing inner eyewall to collapse, thus reducing winds, silver iodine used.
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Flood abatement methods
Measures which focus on the processes and stores within the drainage basin and attempt to slow the movement through the system (lengthen lag time). Include: afforestation, farmer education...
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Channel shape is changed and concreted making water move more quickly through urban areas
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Hard engineering
Tend to be expensive, short term options which have a high impact on landscape or environment and be unsustainable e.g. sea wall, flood barrier...
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Soft engineering
Options tend to be less expensive, more long term and sustainable with less impact on the environment e.g. management and retreat
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Recording data and using computer models to predict weather
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Object placed in orbit in order to collect information, allows consistent, long term observation to track hurricanes and tornadoes
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles - allow cheap, flexible acquisition of aerial images and allows monitoring of events and land cover change
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Remote sensing
Viewing something via a platform e.g. satellite or UAV
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Software which allows mapping and asking questions about certain situations
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Stevenson Screen
Standard shelter from rain, snow and high winds as well as leaves and animals
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Measures air pressure
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Measures wind speed and direction
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Measures humidity
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Unit used to express the extent of cloud, equal to one eighth of the sky
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Rose Diagrams
(Wind) shows distribution of wind direction and speed at a location over a period of time
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The climate of a very small or restricted area, especially when this differs from surrounding area
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Wetted Width
Width of water surface measured perpendicular to the direction of flow at a specific discharge
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Wetted depth
The average depth of a stream channel from mean high water depth to mean high water depth
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Wetter perimeter
The portion of the perimeter of a stream channel cross section which is in contact with water
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Bankfull width
The width of a river or stream channel between the highest banks on either side of a stream
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Bankfull depth
Distance from bankfull height to riverbed
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Bankfull wetter perimeter
Distance along streambed and banks under bankful conditions (when river completely fills channel)
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The speed of something in a given direction
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Cross-sectional area
channel width x channel depth
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Amount of water flowing through river bed = CSA x velocity
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Hydraulic Radius
Measure of efficiency of river. = Bankfull CSA/ wetter perimeter
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Goad Maps
Map showing land use of buildings
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Stratified sample
Population is divided into subpopulations (strata) and random sample taken from each stratum in proportion to its size compared to the population
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Long profile
Way of displaying the channel slope of a river
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Hurricane or tornado


Immediate disastrous weather event

Card 3




Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4




Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Large, violent revolving storms associated with hurricane force winds and torrential rain


Preview of the back of card 5
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