General Biology Revision

This PDF file is filled with general Biology revision notes. Most of them have come from revision for the B2 exam, but they can be applied in other areas.

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What is genetics?
The way genes are passed on from one generation to another.
What is a genotype?
The genes an individual has. eg. a woman who has blonde hair would have the blonde
gene bb
Who is Mendel?
He was a monk who discovered the basics of genetics. He did this by working on pea
plants and analysing them.
What is the modern name for germinal unit?
A gene - it is found inside a nucleus.
bb = mum! ! (red hair)! ! recessive
BB = dad! ! (blond hair)! ! dominant
b Bb Bb
b Bb Bb
Each of the four children have the gene Bb. This means that they will all have blonde hair
because B is dominant while b is recessive. It overpowers, canceling it out.
Made by Aidan Waples

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What is an allele?
It is a form of a gene that is found in DNA.
Particular characteristics in genes are different
Particular characteristics in genes are the same.
Coloured in have blue eyes
Male !
- H and L are homozygous for blue eyes.
- C must be heterozygous.
- Non blue eyes are more dominant because the first generation both have non blue eyes.…read more

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Animal Cell Plant Cell
- Cytoplasm, where metabolic reactions Everything in animal cell as well as
controlled by enzymes take place. these:
- Mitochondria, where energy is released - Chloroplast, which absorbs light energy
in respiration. to make food.
- Nucleus, which controls the activities of - Permanent Vacuole, filled with cell sap.
the cell. - Cell Wall, which strengthens the cell.
- Ribosomes, where protein synthesis
takes place.
- Cell Membrane, which controls the
passage of substances in and out of the
cell.…read more

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What is diffusion?
It is the net movement of particles of a gas o of a solute in solution, from a region where the
particles are at a higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, Ths results from
the random movement of particles.
What is osmosis?
It is the same as diffusion but for water across a membrane.…read more

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Carbon Cycle
Version 1
CO2 in
Carbon in carbohydrates, fats Carbon in carbohydrates, fats and
and proteins in animals. proteins in green plants.
Carbon in carbohydrates,
fats and proteins in
decomposers.…read more

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Equation for respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
In photosynthesis it goes the opposite way as plants take in carbon dioxide and give out
oxygen instead of taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide.…read more

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Pyramid of Biomass:
mass of lions
mass of antelopes
mass of grass
What things effect biomass?
* Movement (hunting)
* Keeping Warm
Reproduction! ! ! ALL FROM RESPIRATION
The two with * are most common in mammals.
If a question comes up on
an exam about limiting factors,
use the two marked with an
asterisk (*).…read more

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What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis?
Mitosis Meiosis
two cells are made four cells are made
cells made can go on and divide cells made cannot divide again
cells made have half the number
all cells have the same number of of chromosomes
gametes are made
body cells are made
Why do cells made by meiosis have half the number of normal chromosomes?
This is because the man will give 23 chromosomes and the woman will give 23 chromosomes so
the…read more

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Diabetes (Insulin)
The PANCREAS monitors blood glucose and controls its level by producing the hormone INSULIN
which reduces the blood glucose level.
What does insulin do?
Insulin allows glucose to move from the blood into cells which convert soluble glucose to the
insoluble storage material GLYCOGEN.
What happens to a person with diabetes?
People with some forms of diabetes produce too little or no insulin, and so their blood glucose
could rise to a fatally high level.…read more

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Cross-section of a leaf
Cuticle - waxy layer helps protect the leaf and stop water loss
Upper Epidermis - protects leaf and helps keep its shape
Palisade Cells - big, tall cells contain loads of chloroplast.…read more


Mollie Purser


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