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BIOLOGY REVISION


Genetics
What is genetics?
The way genes are passed on from one generation to another.

What is a genotype?
The genes an individual has. eg. a woman who has blonde hair would have the blonde
gene bb

Who is Mendel?
He was a monk who discovered the basics…

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What is an allele?
It is a form of a gene that is found in DNA.

Heterozygous
Particular characteristics in genes are different
Homozygous
Particular characteristics in genes are the same.


A B



C D E F G H


I J K L M



Female
Coloured in have blue eyes…

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Cells




Animal Cell Plant Cell

- Cytoplasm, where metabolic reactions Everything in animal cell as well as
controlled by enzymes take place. these:
- Mitochondria, where energy is released - Chloroplast, which absorbs light energy
in respiration. to make food.
- Nucleus, which controls the activities of - Permanent Vacuole,…

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Diffusion

What is diffusion?
It is the net movement of particles of a gas o of a solute in solution, from a region where the
particles are at a higher concentration to a region of lower concentration, Ths results from
the random movement of particles.




Osmosis

What is osmosis?
It…

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Carbon Cycle

Version 1
CO2 in
atmosphere



Carbon in carbohydrates, fats Carbon in carbohydrates, fats and
and proteins in animals. proteins in green plants.




Carbon in carbohydrates,
fats and proteins in
decomposers.




Version 2
Combustion of fossil fuels

CO2 in the
atmosphere

from partially decayed plant and
animal material

microorganisms…

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Equation for respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

In photosynthesis it goes the opposite way as plants take in carbon dioxide and give out
oxygen instead of taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide.

Perfect…

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Pyramid of Biomass:

mass of lions

mass of antelopes

mass of grass




What things effect biomass?
* Movement (hunting)
* Keeping Warm
Reproduction! ! ! ALL FROM RESPIRATION
Digestion
Excretion

The two with * are most common in mammals.




HINT!
If a question comes up on
an exam about limiting…

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What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis?



Mitosis Meiosis


two cells are made four cells are made

cells made can go on and divide cells made cannot divide again
again
cells made have half the number
all cells have the same number of of chromosomes
chromosomes
gametes are made…

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Diabetes (Insulin)

The PANCREAS monitors blood glucose and controls its level by producing the hormone INSULIN
which reduces the blood glucose level.

What does insulin do?
Insulin allows glucose to move from the blood into cells which convert soluble glucose to the
insoluble storage material GLYCOGEN.

What happens to a…

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Leaves


Cross-section of a leaf




Cuticle - waxy layer helps protect the leaf and stop water loss

Upper Epidermis - protects leaf and helps keep its shape

Palisade Cells - big, tall cells contain loads of chloroplast. These cells make the food

Chloroplasts - trap light energy from the Sun…

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Mollie Purser

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