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Gender differences in risk factors for
offending
Farrington et al (2003) conducted a longitudinal survey which
looked at how offending developed
He assessed how effective risk factors were in predicting offending
and found that:
Brother Sister
Convictions for offences 44% 12%
Average # of convictions 4.3 2.8
Average age of offending 21.7 21.5
Average age of first offence 18.5 19.9
Average age of last conviction 25.1 24.3
This shows that brothers:
· Are more likely to be convicted than sisters
· have a higher number of convictions than sisters
· begin offending slightly earlier than sisters
· stop offending slightly later than sisters…read more

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Gender differences in risk factors for
offending
Farrington also found that: Mainly commit
burglary
A risk factor is harsh
Brothers A risk factor is discipline
poorly educated
parents A risk factor is low
A risk factor is social class
nervous parents A risk factor is poor
Mainly parental supervision
commit
vehicle theft
Mainly commit
deception Sisters Mainly
shoplift
offences
He proposed that the way to prevent crime is family based risk prevention.
This may involve parental training and educating parents on supervision and
discipline…read more

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Carol Smart (1977)
Women commit less crimes and more trivial
crimes than men
Women are neglected from criminology because
of this as women's behaviour is seen as less of a
problem than male behaviour…read more

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The chivalry thesis
The chivalry thesis argues that women don't commit less crime
than males - they are simply given more lenient treatment
FOR Campbell (1981)
· Conducted a self report study and found
that females are more likely to be
Hood (1989) cautioned than prosecuted.
Men are more likely to be sentenced to
prison than women
Farrington and Morris (1983)
Men get more sever sentences than
women BUT the gender differences
Box (1981) disappear when the severity of the crime is
Women aren't treated favourably when taken into account
committing serious offences
AGAINST…read more

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The bias against women ­ Feminist Theory
Women are penalized for crimes
against them The Double Standards
Dobash and Dobash (1979) Women's arrests are based on whether they
follow the norms of female sexuality and
Police officers are unlikely to based on their status e.g. mother
arrest people in domestic Carlen (1997)
violence cases women are sentenced based on whether
Walklate (1995) they're wives, sisters or mothers rather than
based on their crime
The female victim is on trial in
Heidensohn(1985)
rape cases rather than the
The justice system is influenced by gender
male suspect attitudes
The women's evidence is only Women are treated more harshly if they go
believed if her respectability is against the norms of female sexuality
established The only exception is mothers with young
children who receive less imprisonment…read more

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