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Engineer Faiz ul Hasnain

Physics, Mathematics O A levels
& career advice.
Radioactivity 1 Consultant905@gmail.com
03215307475
Name & Set

(a) What is an atom?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]
(b) How can we distinguish one element from another?

___________________________________________________________________________ [1]
(c) Name three different elements.

(i) An element that is classed as…

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(j) Draw a labelled diagram in the space below to show the structure of each nucleus. The first
one has been started for you.



4 13 8
2
He O
8 4
Be




N




(k) What two things happen when a nucleus decays?

(i) ______________________________________________________________________ [1]

(ii) _____________________________________________________________________ [1]

(l)…

Page 3

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(s) Identify the particle emitted in the following decays:

226
88
Ra Rn + ?
?
?
[1]


1
3
H He + ?
3
2
[1]


238
92
U Th + ?
234
90
[1]


14
6
C N + ?
14
7
[1]



(u) What does `count rate'…

Page 4

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Vocabulary
Find the definitions of the following terms used in nuclear physics.


Word Definition

Alpha-particle



Atom



Background radiation



Beta particle



Count rate



Electron



Gamma-radiation



Half-life



Ionised



Isotope



Molecule



Neutron



Proton



Radiactivity



Radioactive decay



X-ray




4

Page 5

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Engineer Faiz ul Hasnain

Physics, Mathematics O A levels
Radioactivity 2 & career advice.
Consultant905@gmail.com
03215307475
Name & Set


1 An atom can be represented by 226
88 Ra
(i) What information about the nucleus do the numbers 226 and 88 give?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]
(ii) What further information about…

Page 6

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4 (a) Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation and X-rays are all said to be ionising
radiation. What does this mean?

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]
(b) Describe two methods by which the presence of ionising radiation may be detected. In each
case describe the principle on which the method works.…

Page 7

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Engineer Faiz ul Hasnain

Physics, Mathematics O A levels
Radioactivity 3 & career advice.
Consultant905@gmail.com
Half-life
03215307475


Name & Set

220
1 In an experiment to determine the half-life of Radon-220 ( 86
Rn ) the following results were
obtained, after allowing for the background count.


Time /s 0 10…

Page 8

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3 (a) Explain what is meant by the terms

(i) half-life ____________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(i) background radiation _________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]
(b) The count rate from an artificially produced radioactive element is measured daily at midday.
The results are given in the table below.

Time / days 0 1 2 3…

Page 9

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4 A medical physicist uses iodine-123 as a tracer in diagnosis of thyroid problems.

Decay curve for Iodine 123
800


Count rate (counts per minute)
700




600



500




400




300



200



100



0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (hours)


(a) (i) Using the graph, write down the…

Page 10

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5 An archaeologist finds human bones in the ground and sends them for carbon-dating.

(a) (i)Which isotope of carbon is measured in carbon dating? __________________________ [1]
(ii) Why is the element carbon chosen as the one to measure?

______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ [2]
(b) The graph below shows the decay curve for…

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