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B3 Topic 3 `Biotechnology'
Biotechnology: using living organisms (especially microorganisms) to produce useful products (e.g. food,
medicines) or to provide people with services (e.g. waste management, water purification).
Biomolecule: a chemical or substance produced by a living organism.
Microorganisms: living organisms that can only be seen under a microscope.

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Factors affecting growth in yeast

Yeasts are widely used in biotechnology for making bread and alcoholic drinks such as beer and wine. Yeast
can also be grown on an industrial scale in fermenters to produce enzymes and medicines such as penicillin.
The pH of the culture is one of the…

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These factors can affect both the speed at which yogurt is made from milk, and also the type of yoghurt is

Enzyme Technology

Meat contains fibres which are tough if you don't beat it to break up the fibres. Pineapple juice, which
contains enzymes that tenderise the meat, is…

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Special stain removers can be bought to remove wine, blood or oil stains. Some are solvents but some
contain specific enzymes that will break down the stain.

Enzymes for cheese-making

Chymosin is the enzyme used to make the curds and whey, the beginning of the cheese. Traditionally, the
enzyme is…

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Cellulase is produced by the microorganisms which are found in the digestive system of cows. This enzyme
helps them break down the cell walls in grass.

Breeding plants

Unfortunately, as the human population grows many people all over the world do not have enough food.
The World Health Organisation has…

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It can be used as a fuel for cars and buses.


This can be used in vehicles and is very similar to normal diesel. The vehicle doesn't need to be altered much
for it to run on biodiesel.
Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or waste cooking…

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3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens contain plasmids. These are removed from the bacteria, `cut open' and inserted
into the herbicide-resistance gene.
4. The genetically modified bacteria then infect the target plant. A crown gall on the plant will occur which is
swelling of the plant.
5. This is when the bacteria have…




Thank you sooo much these notes have really helped me with my GCSE's!

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