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B3 Topic 2 Behaviour
Work of famous scientists

Tinbergen and the herring gulls

Niko founded ethology ­ study of animal behaviour. His famous work centred on herring gulls instinctive
behaviour to peck at a red colour to get fed.
Chicks pecked at a red spot more than any other coloured…

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Although, some behaviour is a mixture of the two (such as imprinting).

Innate behaviour

Reflexes ­ life saving
o Iris reflex ­ protects the retina by controlling light coming in.
o Movement of body parts in response to a stimulus.
o Automatic ­ no need to think about them.

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Training animals using conditioning

Humans use both classical and operant conditioning to train animals to do certain things.
Training animals usually involves operant conditioning ­ giving rewards when the animal does something you
want it to do. Punishments can work in reverse ­ when the animal does something you don't…

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Polygamous: More than one partner
Examples of:
o Animals that mate for life: swans, bald eagle, albatross, mallard, raven, penguins, parrots
o Animals that have several mates in a lifetime: dogs, hippos, gorillas
o Animals that have many mates per season: lions, wolves, sea lions, cats, rabbits
Animals attract a…

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Co-evolution: where two or more species affect each other's evolution.
An example is milkweed and some species of monarch butterfly and beetle. The milkweeds are fed on by
insects and thus, some milkweeds have evolved to produce foul tasting toxins which stop the insects from
However, some monarch butterflies…

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Tools were found with Homo Habilis and Homo erectus. Stone tools cannot be dated directly, but we can
date the layers of rock or sediment they are found in. We assume that the tool is the same age as the later of
rock and sediment.
Age of a tool can…

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondria in all living cells have their own DNA.
The mitochondria DNA is always from the mother as the cytoplasm of the egg cell is the first point of the
DNA changes over time due to mutations, however, mtDNA mutates around 100 to 1000 times faster than…


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