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Topic 1 ­ Control Systems

Circadium rhythm ­ a 24 hour rhythm found in plants and animals.

Photoperiodicity ­ the way in which living things respond to changes in day
length.

Photoperiodicity has three main uses in plants:
1. Germination ­ when plants die in the winter, their seeds survive.…

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1. Kidney transplants ­ a kidney is donated and implanted in the place of
a non-functioning kidney.
2. Dialysis ­ small amounts of blood are removed and filtered in a machine
before being returned into the patient's body.

Nephron




































The Menstrual Cycle

Day 0­7 ­ Menstruation (uterus lining breaks down)…

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The four hormones that control the menstrual cycle are Oestrogen,
Progesterone, LH and FSH.
Oestrogen ­ produced in the ovaries, causes uterus lining to thicken.
Progesterone ­ Produced by the empty follicle, maintains the uterus wall. If a
women gets pregnant, progesterone causes the placenta to form.
FSH ­ stimulates…

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Surrogate Mothers ­ IVF is performed but the fertilised egg is placed into
another mother's womb.
Using FSH ­ this stimulates the maturation of follicles so more eggs are
released to use in IVF. Could cause complications.

Inheritance of gender

The 23rd pair of human chromosomes is called the sex…

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Passive immunisation ­ provide from antibodies outside the body (e.g.
vaccination or breast milk)
Active immunisation ­ normal infection by a pathogen (natural immunity) or
after vaccination (artificial immunity)

Jenner's contribution
Edward Jenner discovered immunisation. He observed that milkmaids never
got small pox but instead they got cowpox (which was…

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Monoclonal Antibodies are identical copies of antibodies that have been grown
in labs, which can be designed to bind to many substances in the body. The
substances can then be easily identified.
















Growth of bacteria

When bacteria grow they divide by binary fission. When a colony of bacteria
has the…

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Louis Pasteur first proved that microorganisms were responsible for souring
milk, wine and beer and that microorganisms were no longer able to grow in
liquids if the liquid has been boiled.

He proved that microorganisms were present in the environment and could not
spontaneously generate. He did this by comparing…

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