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ICT Revision
1. Hardware

Input devices: Used to put or send data and information from the computer,
There are 2 types of input devices, manual and automatic.

Manual input devices

QUERTY Keyboard the standard keyboard
Braille Keyboard for people who are visually impaired, this consists of letters and symbols
that…

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Tracker ball very similar to a mouse but the ball its set into a cup on the top of the unit.
Advantages Disadvantages

Ideal for use when flat space next to the computer is limited. Not supplied as standard.
Joystick similar to a tracker ball except instead of a ball…

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Graphics tablet produces accurate drawings than a mouse or pointing device.
Advantages Disadvantages

Easier to use because it's much more Only suitable for inputting diagram data.
natural to use than a mouse. Can be very difficult to use.
Very accurate. Very expensive.
Microphone used to input sound.
Advantages Disadvantages

With…

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Converter) must be connected between the computer and the sensor. This device converts the
analogue signals from the sensor into digital data that the computer can process.

Output devices: Used to display the data and information from the computer.

Monitors or VDU (Visual Display Unit) the most common output device.…

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Fast printouts Toner is more expensive than the inkjet cartridges.
Prints very quietly Bulky
Cost per page is low Can't use continuous or multipart stationary to create carbon copies.

Inkjet printers very popular because they are cheap. They use ink cartridges to produce
both black and white and colour copies.…

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Switches can turn electrical equipment `on' or `off' and can operate valves to control the flow
of air and fluid through pipes.
LEDs (LightEmitting Diodes) can be connected to the computer and respond to electric
signals which tell them to switch on and off.
Actuators Signals from computers can generate…

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When the computer is turned on it boots up
It links the operating system to the memory.
Remembers the instructions, this is called nonvolatile memory.
Stored on a chip, and so not lost.

RAM (Random Access Memory)
Bigger the memory, the larger the workspace to load.
When you switch off…

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Multi program, e.g. you using 3 applications at once words, access, excel.
Multi user, e.g. network
Batch, e.g. accepts a list of jobs, input wages and then processes in one go, all payroll
Real time processing e.g. airline reservation immediate response or blocks others from
using same seats.

Computer User…

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Advantages Disadvantages

Easy to use Take up a lot of RAM
Don't need to remember commands Take up a lot of processing to refresh
Interface is familiar with each application displays

Sound and Speech Interface
Allows you to interact with your environment or device by speaking the commands.
Used in…

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