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Sociology Unit 4: Crime and Deviance

Different theories of crime, deviance, social order and social control
Crime is behaviour that breaks the law and is punished by the legal system. Deviance is behaviour which
goes against the norms, values and expectations of a social group or society. Crime is mostly…

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what needs to happen. A is Adaption which is a way of making sure goods are produced and distributed
and therefore needs to be capable of adapting to changes in the social system. I is Integration which is a
means of ensuring that individuals conform, with the agents of social…

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emerge in socially disorganised areas where there is a high rate of population turnover and a consequent
lack of social cohesion. Retreatist subculture ­ emerge among the lower-class youths who are
double-failures having failed to succeed in mainstream society and in the gang cultures of the criminal and
conflict subcultures…

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Neo-Marxist Gramsci saw ideology as having Relative Autonomy from the economic base. Hegemony
(dominance in society of the ruling classes set of ideas over others and acceptance of and consent to them
by the rest of society) placed much more emphasis on the role of ideas. Althusser argued that the…

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exploits. In the same period, Chambliss was monitoring another gang at the same school ­ the Roughnecks.
This group was made of six lower-class white boys, viewed by everyone as heading for trouble. They
were constantly in trouble with the policy and local community even though their delinquency was about…

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assumptions when challenging metanarratives. However it exaggerates the scale of social change and
overemphasises the influence of the mass media, and tends to assume that people are passive and easily
manipulated by the media. Ollocks suggests that postmodernism is simply an exhausting intellectual game
using obscure ideas and complicated language…

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Hughes (1991) says that left realists haven't explained why some people who experience relative
deprivation see crime as a solution and others don't. He argues that there would be a lot more crime if
relative deprivation was the main cause.

Right Realists is the greatest influence on current Home Office…

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theft ­ young people are more likely to be on the streets or in clubs, which is where most pick
pocketing occurs. Evidence that young people are more likely to be victims of crime supports this.
It's not age itself, just areas where people are going to be with opportunities…

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areas of employment. By the late 80s the main employment of shipbuilding and mining were no
longer employing large numbers of people. With this decline part-time female employment assumed
more significance, with a shift towards the service sector and leisure employment. From the work of
Jean Baudrillard, Winlow argues this…

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between the level of crime and the state of economy. Property crime seems to rise when people
are hard up, when poverty is on the increase and people are in need to provide for their families.

Miller argues that the fact that more people in prison are working-class reflects the…

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