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Psychology of Addictive Behaviour
Biological - Gambling

Initiation ­ Role of Genetics
o Shah et al (2005) carried out a twin study of genetic transmission of gambling
in men and found evidence that genetics influenced the possibility of
addictive behaviour from one generation to the next.
o Black et al…

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3. Reductionism ­ Claims that this approach ignores the importance of external factors
in development of behaviour. It also reduces the complex phenomenon down to a
simple explanation.
4. Ignores Environmental and Situational Factors ­ These include factors such as
accessibility to gambling opportunities, incentives to gambling (e.g. free bets,…

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genetics may not determine initiation but make it more likely that some smokers will
become addicted, should they start.
2. The Role of Genetics ­ Lerman et al (2004) found evidence suggesting that a
smoker's genetic make-up may affect the successfulness of medication prescribed
for quitting smoking. This suggests that…

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Cognitive - Gambling

Initiation ­ Self-Medication
o Gelkopf et al (2002) proposed that individuals intentionally use different
forms of pathological behaviour (e.g. alcohol and drugs) to treat the
psychological symptoms from which they suffer. They chose the activity
which perceives to help them with the problem.
Maintenance ­ Role of…

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Initiation ­ Expectancy Theory
o Brandon et al (1999) found that addicts differ from non addicts in terms of
their expectancies about positive vs. negative effects of their behaviour.
Expectancy theories propose that behaviour escalates into an addiction
because of the expectations a person has about the costs and benefits…

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Initiation ­ Operant Conditioning
o This proposes that any behaviour that produces a consequence that the
individual finds rewarding, it then becomes more frequent (positive
o Griffiths (2009) claimed that gamblers who play with slot machines may
become addicted because of psychological, physiological and financial
o Delfrabro and…

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Learning ­ Smoking

Initiation ­ Role Models (1) and Popularity (2)
o (1) Kandel and Wu (1995) suggested that Social Learning Theory explanations
of experimental smoking propose that young people begin smoking as a
consequence of observing social models around them who smoke.
o (2) Mayeux (2008) found a positive…




Great notes, when will you have finished schizophrenia?

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