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FOREIGN POLICY TIMELINE
1542> Henry VIII declares himself King of Ireland by an act of Parliament. (Crown of Ireland Act)
1558> Death of Mary I, Cecil is appointed Secretary of State.
1559> Death of Henry II of France, ascension of Francis II and Mary QOS, Rebellion of the Lords of
1560> Treaty of Berwick, Treaty of Edinburgh, French troops leave Scotland and an English army
is sent as they leave. Death of Francis II.
1561> Mary QOS returns to Scotland. Sussex campaigns against Shane O'Neill in Ireland.
1562> Treaty of Hampton Court signed with the Huguenots.
1564> Treaty of Troyes signed with France ending English hostilities in Le Havre.
1565> Mary QOS marries Lord Darnley.
1566> Major rebellions from the Dutch Protestants begin in the Spanish Netherlands, the Murder
of the Italian secretary David Rizzio, and the birth of Mary QOS's only child James.
1567> Murder of Lord Darnley; Mary QOS married the Earl of Bothwell, Mary Queen of Scots is
forced to ABDICATE in favour of her son James. Shane O'Neill is killed, Alva in the Netherlands.
1568> England seized Phillip II's Genoese Bullion; Mary Stuart flees to England after escaping her
prison home in Lochleven, Catholic college founded in Douai, John Hawkins clashes with the
Spanish in Mexico.
1569> Suspension of trade between Spain and England; Norfolk marriage plot discovered, NR.
1570> Pope Pius V excommunicated England; AngloSpanish relations deteriorate, Earl of Moray
1571> Ridolfi plot discovered. (Casket letters) Spanish involvement.
1572> St Bartholomew's Day massacre in France; First stage of TudorAnjou marriage
negotiations; Treaty of Blois improved AngloFrench relations. English expulsion of the `Sea
Beggars' from ports around England, their actions had worsened AngloSpanish relations.
1573> Treaty of Nijmegan with the Netherlands resumed AngloSpanish trade; Failure of Smith's
1574> Henri III on the throne of France.
1576> Sack of Antwerp, Spanish army mutinied against Spain for more pay (Spanish fury);
Pacification of Ghent, alliance between the Hapsburg Netherlands and the mutinous army to keep
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Perpetual Edict: the Spanish temporarily withdrew their military presence in the
1578> Parma's victory at the Battle of Gembloux.
1579> Fitzmaurice and Sander landed in Smerwick, triggering uprisings in Ireland,
Alencon/Elizabeth marriage negotiations.
1580> Azores expeditions funded by Elizabeth in support of Don Antonio; Spanish gain of Portugal
and their empire.
1581> Elizabeth funded Anjou to intervene in the Netherlands against Spain.
1584> Treaty of Joinville, William of Orange killed, expulsion of the Spanish ambassador.…read more