Basic Timeline of Russia

How long had Romanov dynasty ruled Russia?
500 years
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What percentage of Russian people were peasants?
85%
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When was the FIRST Duma opened?
1906
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What party won the majority in the First Duma?
The Kadet Party (Constitutional Democratic Party)
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Instead of granting control of taxes to the Duma, what did the Tsar do?
He dismissed the Duma and Liberals fled to Finland
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When there were new elections, what happened?
It became more radical:Marxist SDLP won some seats from the Kadets
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Why did the Tsar dismiss the SECOND Duma?
he wanted to arrest several SDLP members as terrorists but the Duma refused
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Who wanted economic reform in order to fix Russia's problems?
Prime Minister Stolypin
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When was Stolypin murdered by a revolutionary?
1911
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Who was Rasputin?
A Holy Man said to be able to treat Alexei Romanov's haemophillia
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When was Rasputin killed?
1916 by angry noble men
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How many Russian casualties were there by the end of 1917?
around 1,800,000
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What others problems arose during the war?
shortage of rifles and equipment; bad leadership; stalemate; inflation
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When was the 'February' Revolution?
1917
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Where did the February Revolution primarily take place?
Petrograd
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What did the Tsar do in response to the Revolution?
He abdicated
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What was set up in place of the Tsar?
The Provisional Government by Prince Lvov
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Who later became the leader of the Provisional Government?
Kerensky- Russia was now a republic
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According to Marx, why would change come?
because there was a class struggle between the middle and working classes
19 of 80
When did the Social Democratic Labour Party split?
1903
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Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks at the time of the split?
Lenin
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Who was the leader of the Mensheviks?
Martov
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Where was Lenin in exile during the War?
Switzerland
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Who helped Lenin return to Russia in April 1917?
Germany
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What did Lenin issue when he arrived in Russia?
his April Thesis
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What did the April Thesis promise?
"Peace, bread, land and freedom"
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According to Lenin, who should power be given to?
The Soviet
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What problems did the Provisional Government face?
it wasn't supposed to stay in power; inflation 10x higher than 1914; food shortages; war continued; mutinies
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What did the Petrograd Soviet issue?
Order No.1- soldiers should no obey orders from the Provisional Government if they opposed the Soviet
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What happened in July 1917?
Bolsheviks tried to take control of government but were defeated
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Where did Lenin flee to after the failed revolution?
Finland
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What did Kerensky accuse Lenin of being?
a German spy
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Who led the Red Guards (Bolshevik military force)?
Leon Trotsky
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Who won control of the Soviets?
The Bolsheviks- Trotsky was Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet
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Who marched their army back from the front against the Provisional Government?
General Kornilov
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When was the Kornilov affair?
September 1917
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Who did Kerensky give weapons to?
The Bolsheviks and the Petrograd Soviet to save the government from military takeover
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Who stopped Kornilov's advance?
Bolshevik railway workers and Red Guards
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How did the Kornilov affair benefit the Bolsheviks?
They were the saviours of the revolution; now the real power
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Who voted for a revolution?
The Bolshevik Central Committee under Lenin
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When did the October Revolution start?
24th October 1917
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What did the Red Guards do to help the Oct. Revolution?
took control of important points such as railway stations and telephone exchanges
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What happened at Winter Palace?
There was an attack and Provisional Government members were arrested
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Why did Kerensky leave the Petrograd during the Oct. revolution?
to try and raise a force of loyal troops
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How many Bolsheviks were there in Russia?
250,000 controlling a small part of the country
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Who did the All-Russian Congress of Soviets give power to?
the Soviet Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom) under Lenin on 26th October 1917
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How many seats did the Bolsheviks win in the Constituent Assembly?
168 out of 703
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Where did most Constituent Assembly seats go?
to the Socialist Revolutionaries who had peasant support
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What happened a say after the Constituent Assembly opened?
The Red Guards closed it down- January 1918
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What were the two decrees Lenin made?
Decree on Land- nationalised all land and Decree on Peace- called for peace with Germany
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Why were the Bolsheviks successful?
strong in key political centres; own military force; clear strategies; changed policies to seize power; problems weren't dealt with ProvGov
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Why did the Bolsheviks sign an armistice with the Germans?
they hoped to delay the peace treaties- may be a communis revolution in Germany too
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What happened when German armies began to advance?
they agreed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918
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Why did Civil War break out?
communists had seized power and repressed elected Con. Assembly; communism wanted a world revolution; anti-communist army officers no longer fighting in Germany
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What were the armies called that were against the Bolsheviks/
The Whites
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What was a key problem for the Whites?
the groups had different aims and purposes
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Which foreign countries tried to help the Whites?
Britain, France and the USA
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Why did the foreign countries help the whites?
wanted to restart a war on the western front; worried by communist ideas of world revolution
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Why did the Red Army win?
forces were united; Trotsky was a good leader; patriotic Russians supported the Reds; controlled main cities; war communism meant supplies for Reds
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When were the Romanovs executed?
1918 by the Bolsheviks
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Under War Communism, what happened to farms and factories?
they were placed under state control
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How did requisitioning work?
taken for soldiers and industrial workers; peasants who refused to hand it to red army were shot or sent to labour camps
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What did the Cheka do?
They were the secret police; they hunted and executed enemies of the state
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Why did the Kronstadt Naval Base mutiny?
They were unhappy with the lack of progress
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Where did they seize?
a base near petrograd in February 1921
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Why were Lenin and Trotsky worried?
worried that dissent might spread when ice thawed and soldiers could leave
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What did Trotsky do in response to the mutiny?
ordered the Red army to put down the mutiny
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What happened in the Tambov Province?
peasants robbed food conveys
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What policy Lenin introduce in 1921?
the New Economic Policy (NEP)
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Why did Lenin introduce the NEP?
to restore order and increase prosperity
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What did the NEP allow peasants to do?
sell urplus food produce but they had to pay tax on profits
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What happened to small businesses?
They no longer had to be state-owned so they could make more proft
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What did the NEP do with vital industries?
they were nationalised
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What were "vital industries"?
things such as coal, iron, steel and railways
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By 1928 what had happened to levels of industrial and food production?
they were about the same as in 1914
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What did the "purge" do in 1921?
expelled about a third of Party Members who didn't agree with Lenin
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What was imposed in areas recaptured in the civil war?
Communist government were imposed, against the will of independent nationalists such as the Ukraine
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what did the new constitution establish?
The union of Soviet Socialist Republics
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When did Lenin die?
1924
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What were Lenin's key strengths?
organisation and leadership; pragmatic and realistic; able to seize the moment; ruthless; able to change his policies
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What percentage of Russian people were peasants?

Back

85%

Card 3

Front

When was the FIRST Duma opened?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What party won the majority in the First Duma?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Instead of granting control of taxes to the Duma, what did the Tsar do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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