Basic Timeline of Russia

How long had Romanov dynasty ruled Russia?
500 years
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What percentage of Russian people were peasants?
2 of 80
When was the FIRST Duma opened?
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What party won the majority in the First Duma?
The Kadet Party (Constitutional Democratic Party)
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Instead of granting control of taxes to the Duma, what did the Tsar do?
He dismissed the Duma and Liberals fled to Finland
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When there were new elections, what happened?
It became more radical:Marxist SDLP won some seats from the Kadets
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Why did the Tsar dismiss the SECOND Duma?
he wanted to arrest several SDLP members as terrorists but the Duma refused
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Who wanted economic reform in order to fix Russia's problems?
Prime Minister Stolypin
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When was Stolypin murdered by a revolutionary?
9 of 80
Who was Rasputin?
A Holy Man said to be able to treat Alexei Romanov's haemophillia
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When was Rasputin killed?
1916 by angry noble men
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How many Russian casualties were there by the end of 1917?
around 1,800,000
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What others problems arose during the war?
shortage of rifles and equipment; bad leadership; stalemate; inflation
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When was the 'February' Revolution?
14 of 80
Where did the February Revolution primarily take place?
15 of 80
What did the Tsar do in response to the Revolution?
He abdicated
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What was set up in place of the Tsar?
The Provisional Government by Prince Lvov
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Who later became the leader of the Provisional Government?
Kerensky- Russia was now a republic
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According to Marx, why would change come?
because there was a class struggle between the middle and working classes
19 of 80
When did the Social Democratic Labour Party split?
20 of 80
Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks at the time of the split?
21 of 80
Who was the leader of the Mensheviks?
22 of 80
Where was Lenin in exile during the War?
23 of 80
Who helped Lenin return to Russia in April 1917?
24 of 80
What did Lenin issue when he arrived in Russia?
his April Thesis
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What did the April Thesis promise?
"Peace, bread, land and freedom"
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According to Lenin, who should power be given to?
The Soviet
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What problems did the Provisional Government face?
it wasn't supposed to stay in power; inflation 10x higher than 1914; food shortages; war continued; mutinies
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What did the Petrograd Soviet issue?
Order No.1- soldiers should no obey orders from the Provisional Government if they opposed the Soviet
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What happened in July 1917?
Bolsheviks tried to take control of government but were defeated
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Where did Lenin flee to after the failed revolution?
31 of 80
What did Kerensky accuse Lenin of being?
a German spy
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Who led the Red Guards (Bolshevik military force)?
Leon Trotsky
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Who won control of the Soviets?
The Bolsheviks- Trotsky was Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet
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Who marched their army back from the front against the Provisional Government?
General Kornilov
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When was the Kornilov affair?
September 1917
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Who did Kerensky give weapons to?
The Bolsheviks and the Petrograd Soviet to save the government from military takeover
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Who stopped Kornilov's advance?
Bolshevik railway workers and Red Guards
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How did the Kornilov affair benefit the Bolsheviks?
They were the saviours of the revolution; now the real power
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Who voted for a revolution?
The Bolshevik Central Committee under Lenin
40 of 80
When did the October Revolution start?
24th October 1917
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What did the Red Guards do to help the Oct. Revolution?
took control of important points such as railway stations and telephone exchanges
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What happened at Winter Palace?
There was an attack and Provisional Government members were arrested
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Why did Kerensky leave the Petrograd during the Oct. revolution?
to try and raise a force of loyal troops
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How many Bolsheviks were there in Russia?
250,000 controlling a small part of the country
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Who did the All-Russian Congress of Soviets give power to?
the Soviet Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom) under Lenin on 26th October 1917
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How many seats did the Bolsheviks win in the Constituent Assembly?
168 out of 703
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Where did most Constituent Assembly seats go?
to the Socialist Revolutionaries who had peasant support
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What happened a say after the Constituent Assembly opened?
The Red Guards closed it down- January 1918
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What were the two decrees Lenin made?
Decree on Land- nationalised all land and Decree on Peace- called for peace with Germany
50 of 80
Why were the Bolsheviks successful?
strong in key political centres; own military force; clear strategies; changed policies to seize power; problems weren't dealt with ProvGov
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Why did the Bolsheviks sign an armistice with the Germans?
they hoped to delay the peace treaties- may be a communis revolution in Germany too
52 of 80
What happened when German armies began to advance?
they agreed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918
53 of 80
Why did Civil War break out?
communists had seized power and repressed elected Con. Assembly; communism wanted a world revolution; anti-communist army officers no longer fighting in Germany
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What were the armies called that were against the Bolsheviks/
The Whites
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What was a key problem for the Whites?
the groups had different aims and purposes
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Which foreign countries tried to help the Whites?
Britain, France and the USA
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Why did the foreign countries help the whites?
wanted to restart a war on the western front; worried by communist ideas of world revolution
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Why did the Red Army win?
forces were united; Trotsky was a good leader; patriotic Russians supported the Reds; controlled main cities; war communism meant supplies for Reds
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When were the Romanovs executed?
1918 by the Bolsheviks
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Under War Communism, what happened to farms and factories?
they were placed under state control
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How did requisitioning work?
taken for soldiers and industrial workers; peasants who refused to hand it to red army were shot or sent to labour camps
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What did the Cheka do?
They were the secret police; they hunted and executed enemies of the state
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Why did the Kronstadt Naval Base mutiny?
They were unhappy with the lack of progress
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Where did they seize?
a base near petrograd in February 1921
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Why were Lenin and Trotsky worried?
worried that dissent might spread when ice thawed and soldiers could leave
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What did Trotsky do in response to the mutiny?
ordered the Red army to put down the mutiny
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What happened in the Tambov Province?
peasants robbed food conveys
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What policy Lenin introduce in 1921?
the New Economic Policy (NEP)
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Why did Lenin introduce the NEP?
to restore order and increase prosperity
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What did the NEP allow peasants to do?
sell urplus food produce but they had to pay tax on profits
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What happened to small businesses?
They no longer had to be state-owned so they could make more proft
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What did the NEP do with vital industries?
they were nationalised
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What were "vital industries"?
things such as coal, iron, steel and railways
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By 1928 what had happened to levels of industrial and food production?
they were about the same as in 1914
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What did the "purge" do in 1921?
expelled about a third of Party Members who didn't agree with Lenin
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What was imposed in areas recaptured in the civil war?
Communist government were imposed, against the will of independent nationalists such as the Ukraine
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what did the new constitution establish?
The union of Soviet Socialist Republics
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When did Lenin die?
79 of 80
What were Lenin's key strengths?
organisation and leadership; pragmatic and realistic; able to seize the moment; ruthless; able to change his policies
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What percentage of Russian people were peasants?



Card 3


When was the FIRST Duma opened?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What party won the majority in the First Duma?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Instead of granting control of taxes to the Duma, what did the Tsar do?


Preview of the front of card 5
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