ACTIVE YEARS: 1814-1835
He was an active Liberal Noble mainly during the Bourbon Period. Very Rich Republican.
Large figurehead towards the left liberal opposition who were AGAINST the Bourbon's. Gathered lots of support from Artisans/Students.
-Role in 1830:
He was seen as the hero of the pro-republicans.
Following the downfall of Charles X he was invited to become the presdent of what could of been a new republic however he privately declined. Instead he hailed the rise of Louis-Phillipe and Orleanism.
However under Louis-Phillipe Layffayette was placed in the position of commander of the National Guard. This was a really disrespectfull move.
Layfayette died in 1834 however his influence in the republican newspaper La Nationale carried on into the 2nd republic.
ACTIVE YEARS: 1814-1830
Strong leader of the Ultra's - represented their principle theorist and was a strong symbol for their cause and voice. "living embodiement of romanticism."
- Became elected as foreign minister for Charles X. Pursued a much more adventurous rather than cautious foreign policy. - In charge of 1823 Spanish war.
However this upset Vielle's previously very cautious foreign policy. Vielle managed to persuade Charles to take Chateaubriand out of goverment. From then on Chatueaubriand and Vielle were at each others necks.
From this humiliating dissmissal Chateaubriand embarkedd on a massive anti-govermental campaign towards Charles in his newspaper. - Gained alot of support from Ultra royalists and embossed his literay rep
MASSIVELY CONTRIBUTED TO THE DOWNFALL OF THE BOURBONS AS ARGUED BY WRIGHT.
If Charles X had chosen more ultra's like Chateaubriand to be in power then maybe the regiime might of survived.
Young Romantic Poet - influenced the mode of any frenchmen involved in arts. Concerned with reviving the reputations of revoloutionary leaders. - VERY BOURGEOISIE
1839 "France is bored."
Following the overthrowal of L-P in 1848 Layfayette took the floor and declared a republic. He therefore became a major figure in the provisional goverment. -Big public speaker who was very charasmatic and poetic and diverted the mass disconentent of the people.
EMERGED AS A SYMBOL AND SPOKESPERSON OF THE 2ND REPUBLIC.
-Acted as foreign minister in prov gmnt- only supported nationalism and liberalism with words rather than actions - pursued netrality supporting marxist view of bourgeois fears of the foreign powers.
Elections of prov gmnt into republic assembly he won - shows frnace was conservative in nature at this time (Universal suffrage of provinces)
Incapable of dominating moderate majority. - Scrapped Social workshops. JUNE DAYS.
Following the June days he plummetted into political obscurity.
ACTIVE YEARS: 1848-1850
In charge of the defense of Paris during the 2nd republic.
JUNE DAYS :
He got his curtain call during this period.
Whilst Lamartine had urged him to take prompt action during the early days, Cavignac allow3d the revels to assemble for afew days and then blasted them with artillary. -Marx: "Drowning the reds in their own blood."
Following this Cavignac became the military hero of the Bourgeois.
Temporary military dictatorship was formed. During this period Cavignac made the republic more appealing to conservative tastes, however class hostility reached its peak.
ACTIVE YEARS: 1820-1827
Alongside Chateaubriand he was the chief political leader of the ultras. He worked as Charles X's fianance minister.
1824-1825:Launched his indemnification laws - he had previously been a aristrocratic emigre
Why did he end up failing ?
Despite Villele's strong powers in fianance and politics he lacked colour and imagination.
He lost alo of support from the Ultra-ultra's. This was because when he was inpower he incoorperated alot of compromise and became more left wing in their eyes. This was heightened by his rivalry with Chateaubriand.
When Chateaubriand was dismissed he wrote alot of anti-goverment views and was very anti Vielle in his newspaper, this only helped to rally the cause of the Ultra-ultras against Vielle.
Vielle was a very strong man in the Bourbon goverment, however he opposed any ideas towards change, therefore this added to the unproductivity of the goverment.
ACTIVE YEARS: 1840'S - came into his prime alot more between 1848-1850
Prominent socialist in the second republic, he popularised the social workshop regime.
He sensed the evils of an early industrial age as there was growing class conflict and attractions of state action and violence were growing.
He proposed quite radical social experiments, however these were turned into moderate public works commissions by the bourgeois majority in the assmebly.
Louis-Blanc had represented a radical system of workers co-operatives, however this wasnt seen through by the social workshops. There wasn't a clear goverment commitment to sweeping social reform.
Louis-blanc fell of the radar as his Luxemborg commission was abolished in 1848 before the June days.
He was a moderate Republican during the regime of Napoleon IIIrd. During the Authoritarain stage of Napoleon's empire he had been the leader of the liberal opposition.
1860: NAPOLEON IIIrd's CONVERSION TO THE LIBERAL EMPIRE
OLIVIER DRAFTED INTO THE ASSEMBLY - Symbolised the growing liberalism of Napoloen
Olivier was allowed to draft men of Republican or Orleanist background into the assmebly.
People were in favour of this liberal transition as support for the Olivier Constittuion was 88%. So support had gone up for Napoleon's regime.
However Ollivier ended up being very out of toutch with the seriousness of the prospect of war with Prussia as he said he accepted with "a light heart" - Therefore he was not succsessfull militarily and penultimately contributed to the downfall of Napoleon's regime
Unorthodox churchman through the period of the Great Revoloution. Had been foreign minister for Napoleon Bonaparte.
He was re-drafted in Louis-Phillipe's goverment.
He became in charge of carving up Belgium amongst the foreign powers - however this didn't succeed and L-P ended up having to accept a policy of non-intervention
Duc de Broglie
ACTIVE YEARS: 1830-1879
He was a memeber of the older aristocracy however was always prominent in the assembly as being a very able monarchist politician.
1830: He had been one of the outsiders who had rallied to the Orleanist cause. The Orleanist regime was therefore not completely made up of new age industrialists.
Instead the Orleanist regime can be described as a "Goverment of Elites". - People of elite wealth, intelligence and birth
During 1873 when Thiers fell from power at the hand of the monarchists Broglie also assumed some power. Whilst the Monarchists had elected Machogan to take power he transferred the task of actuualy forming the cabinet to Broglie. - Therefore this shows how the 3rd Republic was very monarchist dominated.
Duc de Gramont
ACTIVE YEARS: 1860-1870
He acted as Napoleon IIIrd's foreign minister during the end of his reign.
As Napoleon's health declined the power fell into the hands of Duc de Gramont.
HE CAUSED THE HOHENZOLLERN TELEGRAM WHICH CAUSED FRANCE TO FALL INTO A STATE OF WAR WITH PRUSSIA
Polignac was the head of the ultra based ministry which was created by Charles in his Coup D'etat. The Polignac made nearly every mistake possible.
Charles had previously dissolved the ministry due to the presence of hostility between the left and the extreme right
One of the "3 most unpopular men in France"
The creation of the ministry turned many supporters of the regime against it and strengthened the liberal opposition I.E Thiers within Le National