F214 OCR Biology: Respiration

F214 OCR Biology: 

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  • Created by: Hamed
  • Created on: 15-06-11 11:25
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1 molecule of Glucose (6C) GLYCOLYSIS
2ATP (in cytoplasm)
Hexose bisphosphate (6C)
2 x Triose phosphate (3C)
4ADP + 4Pi
4ATP Reduced NAD
2 x Pyruvate (3C)
1. Glucose is phosphorylated to for hexose bisphosphate
2. 2 molecules of ATP are used to do this
3. Hexose bisphosphate splits into 2 molecules of triose phosphate (TP)
4. The 2 TP molecules are oxidised to form 2 molecules of pyruvate
5. 4 ATP are made when pyruvate is made
6. Dehydrogenase removes H+ from the hexose bisphosphate
7. The H+ is used to reduce 2 molecules of NAD
Link Reaction
Link reaction
(link from glycolysis to the Kreb's cycle)
1 molecule of pyruvate (3C)
2 reduced NAD
1 molecule of Acetate (2C) + Coenzyme A
= Acetyl Coenzyme A
1. During aerobic respiration
2. Pyruvate is actively transported into the mitochondrial matrix
3. Pyruvate is decarboxylated
4. This removes CO2
5. Pyruvate is dehydrogenated
6. This removes hydrogen
7. The hydrogen reduces one molecule of NAD
8. In this way pyruvate converted to acetate
9. The acetate then combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl coenzyme A

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Kreb's Cycle
Kreb's Cycle (in matrix of mitochondria)
Acetyl coenzyme A (2C) Coenzyme A
Acetate (2C) + Oxaloacetate (4C) = Citrate (6C)
Reduced FAD
reduced NAD 5C intermediate compound
reduced NAD
1. These reactions also occur in the mitochondrial matrix
2. The acetate from acetyl CoA combines with a 4 carbon compound, oxaloacetate
3. This forms a 6 carbon compound, citrate
4. CoA is re-formed and is involved in another link reaction
5.…read more

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Chemiosmosis diagram
Evidence for chemiosmosis
Evidence Conclusion
Mitochondria have been isolated where the various enzymes are in the
Placed in solution of very low water mitochondria
potential. Water enters by osmosis.…read more

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Anaerobic respiration
In the absence of oxygen hydrogen cannot be used up by combining it with oxygen
So reduced NAD cannot be oxidised and re-cycled
There is less ATP available, so pyruvate cannot be pumped into the mitochondrial matrix
Instead the following happens :
In plants ­ Ethanol pathway In mammals ­ lactate pathway
1. Pyruvate is decarboxylated, CO2 is removed 1. Pyruvate accepts hydrogen from reduced
2. to form ethanal NAD forming lactate
3.…read more


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