F214 OCR A2 Biology Module 4 Respiration

This is a very detailed document on Respiration answering every part of the specification. It is along the same lines as all of the other F214 and F215 documents I have put up on here...there is now one for every module in the A2 specification. 

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 21-06-11 20:29

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F214 Communication, Homeostasis and Energy

Module 4 Respiration

4.4.1 Respiration

a. Outline why plants, animals and microorganisms need to respire, with reference to
active transport and metabolic reactions

All living organisms need energy so as to undergo their biological processes, of
which all of the reactions are known altogether as…

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Adenosine Triphosphate= Phosphate + Phosphate + Phosphate + Ribose + Adenine

c. State that ATP provides the immediate source for biological processes

ATP is a universal energy currency because it is in every living organism in cells,
and energy can be created by losing a phosphate group and can be…

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o Another ATP molecule is hydrolysed to release another 30.6Kj of
o This released phosphate group joins to the fructose 6-phosphate.
o This activates the hexose sugar so it is now fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
o It now becomes a phosphorylated sugar known as hexose
o Two molecules have been…

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o Here there are the enzymes needed for the reactions.
o There are molecules of NAD for the hydrogen molecules to attach to.
o There is oxaloacetate which accepts acetate from the link reaction.
o There is mitochondrial DNA which codes for some of the proteins and
mitochondrial enzymes that…

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Krebs cycle
o Acetate is removed from the coenzyme a and joins with oxyaloacetate to
form citrate.
o Citrate is decarboxylated (removing one carbon dioxide molecule) and
dehydrogenated (removing a pair of hydrogen atoms) to form a five
carbon compound.
o The pair of hydrogen atoms are accepted by NAD…

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o The electrons flow down the electron transport chain releasing energy
which is used by the coenzymes associated with some of the electron
o The energy pumps the protons across the intermembrane space.
o So a proton gradient, a pH gradient and a electrochemical gradient build
o Potential…

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o Some protons may leak across the mitochondrial membrane so reducing
the number of protons to generate the proton motive force.
o Some ATP produced is used to actively transport pyruvate into the
o Some ATP is used to bring hydrogen from reduced NAD made in
glycolysis into the…

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w. Explain the difference in relative energy values of carbohydrate, lipid and protein
respiratory substrates

Carbohydrate Lipid Protein

Energy value=15.8 Energy Energy
kJg-1 value=39.4kJg-1 value=17.0kJg-1

Theoretically the Each fatty acid is When an organism
respiration of 1 mol combined with CoA undergoes fasting,
of glucose should be which needs energy…



there are some errors in your notes regarding the light dependant and light independant reactions

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