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1. (a) islets of Langerhans; 1
(b) glucagon; 1
(c) 1 fall detected by, pancreas / islets of Langerhans / alpha cells / beta cells;
2 fall inhibits insulin, secretion / production;
3 stimulates, secretion / production, of glucagon (by alpha cells);
4 into blood;
5 binds to receptor on,…

Page 2

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B 7 (voltage gated) potassium channels open;
8 potassium (ions) move out (of axon);
9 positive feedback/more potassium channels open;
only award marking points 3 or 9, not both
10 repolarisation/description of repolarisation;
11 beyond -65 mV/hyperpolarisation/AW;


C 12 Na/K pump (helps to), restore/maintain, resting potential;
13 membrane more permeable…

Page 3

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D1 high(est) incidence of torpor/AW;
D2 low(est) oxygen consumption/AW;
D3 high(est) body mass/AW;
D4 data quote; 3 max
explanation
E1 less food used;
E2 (for) less respiration/lower BMR/lower body temperature;
E3 more food stored;
E4 as fat;
E5 (food store/fat) for, migration/flight; max 4


(c) flying, easier/uses less energy (with…

Page 4

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context
carotid
aortic
sympathetic
diaphragm
intercostal
tidal volume
sino-atrial node
stroke volume
negative feedback
homeostasis
[8]




8. (i) S dorsal root ganglion ;
T relay / intermediate / bipolar / internuncial, neurone ; 2
(ii) 1 rapid / fast acting ;
2 short lived ;
3 automatic / involuntary /…

Page 5

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5 ref to action potential (anywhere in answer) ;
6 ref to, myelin sheath / myelinated neurones ;
7 saltatory conduction / AW ;
8 ref to nodes of Ranvier ;
9 synapse with, motor / effector / efferent, neurone ;
10 ref to, calcium ions / calcium channels ;…

Page 6

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12. (i) A islet of Langerhans / and cells ;
B (branch of pancreatic) duct ; 2
(ii) endocrine ductless gland ;
hormones / named hormone ; e.g. insulin / glucagon
into blood ;
exocrine enzymes / pancreatic juice / HCO3­ ;
amylase / trypsin / chymotrypsin / lipase /…

Page 7

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15. insulin produced by, microorganisms / bacteria ;
cheaper source of insulin / more reliable supply / ref to large scale production ;
more rapid response / shorter duration of response ;
less chance of, immune / allergic, response ; R reference to rejection
better for people who have developed…

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