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1 Communication 2 Nerves 1
Cells communicate by cell signalling ­ one cell Sensory receptors (e.g. rods and cones in the retina)
produces a chemical that is detected by another convert one form of energy (e.g. light) into electrical
cell. energy in a nerve impulse.
Cell signalling can be nervous…

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7 Hormones 2 8 Hormones 3
The pancreas secretes enzymes into the gut Type I diabetes (insulin dependent) ­ not enough
(exocrine gland) and hormones into blood (endocrine insulin produced. Type II (noninsulindependent ) ­
gland). liver and muscle cells not responding to insulin.
Pancreatic cells detect high blood glucose…

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13 Kidney 4 14 Temperature regulation
Kidney failure is the inability to (i) remove excess Endotherms (birds and mammals) can produce heat
water urea and salts and (ii) regulate water and salt (e.g. from metabolism in the liver/muscles) to maintain
levels. body temperature.
It can be treated by dialysis ­…

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19 Photosynthesis 5 ­ lightindependent (Calvin 20 Photosynthesis 6 ­ factors affecting
cycle) photosynthesis
CO 2 (via stomata) combines with Ribulose
A limiting factor (e.g. temperature) is the one in the least
bisphosphate ( RuBP ) (5C) to make 2 molecules of supply compared with the other factors and can…

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25 Respiration 5 ­ oxidative phosphorylation and 26 Respiration 6 ­ anaerobic/ATP yield/respiratory
chemiosmosis substrates
All reduced NAD and reduced FAD become oxidised The total yield o f ATP per glucose should be 30 ­ not
­ H atoms split into electrons and protons. Electrons reached because ATP i s…

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31 Variation and genetics 2 32 Variation and natural selection
The position of a gene on a chromosome is its Natural selection is when the variant best suited to
locus . If a gene locus is on ( carried on ) the X or Y the environment reproduce more and…

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Gene technologies 1 ­ genome sequencing 36 Gene technologies 2 ­ genetic engineering
and recombinant DNA Sections of DNA containing a desired gene (e.g. for
Chromosomes are first broken into short sections. human insulin) can be cut by restriction
These act as templates to get DNA pieces that only…

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41 Ecosystems 3 42 Ecosystems 4
Limiting factors (e.g. space, food, light) create a Preservation is the protection of an area by restricting
carrying capacity ­ maximum population of a or banning human exploitation or contact ­ nature
species that an environment can support. reserves/preserves/parks.
Predatorprey cycle : increased prey…

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47 Animal responses 3 48 Animal responses 4
Voluntary muscle is striated and multinucleate. For Learning is a change in behaviour from experience ­
example, attached to bones for conscious movements e.g. habituation (not responding to a constant stimulus),
such as at leg joints for walking. imprinting and conditioning.

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Terms to Define Terms to Define
Genetic Code: Consists of a Triplet Base Sequence Recessive: Alleles that have to occur in homozygous
which codes for specific Amino Acids. form in order to be expressed in the phenotype.
Allele: Different versions of the same genes. Linkage: When two genes are located…


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