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Overview of the exam
Friday 20th June 2014 AM (7/7)
Cellular Control and Variation
Cellular control
Link to F211: Cell exchange and transport .CELL STRUCTURElysosomes &
proteins and cell transportphagocytosis
Link to AS F212: Molecules, biodiversity, food and health. DNA
REPLICATION, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Link to A2 F214: Communication, homeostasis and energy. BCELLS IN THE
PANCREAS.
Genes code for polypeptides, including enzymes
Genes
code
for
pol
ypept
ides
incl
udi
ng
enzymes.…read more

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Transcription
TRANSCRIPTIONThi
s i
s copyi
ng
par
t
of
the
genet
ic
code
ont
o a
lengt
h of
RNA.
Thi
s i
s al
so
known
as
w her
e mRNA
is
cr
eat
ed.
1.A
secti
on of
DN A
u nwi
n ds
and unzi
ps.
2.DNA hel
icase
breaks t
he
hydrogen
bonds between t
he bases and
the
heli
x unwi
nds.
3.Fr
ee RNA
nucleoti
des di
ff
use i
nto
posit
ion.
4.…read more

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The
polypept
ide
chain
grows unt
il
a
stop
codon
is
reached.
Ther
e ar
e no
cor
respondi
ng
tRNAs
for
t
hree
codons
so
the
polypept
ide
chain
is
complet
e .
SOME PROTEI
N S NEED TO BE ACTI
VATED USI
N G CAMP.
State that cyclic AMP activates proteins by altering their threedimensional structure
Cycl
i
c AMP
(cAMP)
act
ivat
es
prot
eins
by
alt
eri
ng
thei
r
3D st
ruct
ure.…read more

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OPERATOR ­The
binding
sit
e f
or
prot
ein
repr
essi
on
w hi
ch
stops
R NA
pol
ymer
ase
get
ti
ng
to
the
prot
ein.
REGULATOR Thi
s i
s t
he
str
uct
ural
gene
(oper
on)
f
or
the
oper
ator
.
Link to F212: genotypes and phenotypes
Phenot
ype:
E.
C ol
i
is
not
abl
e t
o l
act
ose.…read more

Page 8

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BODY PLANSThi
s i
s t
he
gener
al
str
uct
ure
of
an
organi
sm.
HOMEOTIC/HOMEOBOX GENESThey
are
genes
that
cont
rol
t
he
body
plan.
I
t
is
import
ant
that
t
issues
grow i
n t
he
ri
ght
place
home obox
genes
cont
rol
t
he pl
an of
t
his.
Home obox
genes ar
e hi
ghly
conserved t
hroughout phyl
ogeny,
t
he
genes
rarel
y c
h ange.…read more

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There
is
a f
lagell
um u sed
for
locomoti
o n
through l
i
q ui
ds. Ther
e i
s someti
me s
a f
lagel
lum.
There
is
always a
c el
l
w al
l t
his
is
ma de of
cri
ss
crossing Ther
e i
s someti
me s
a cel
l
w al
l
(e.
g.
plant
cel
ls
) and
it
i
s
l
ayers
of pept
idoglycan. made of
cel
lul
ose.…read more

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DNA
is
too
lar
ge
to
leave
the
nucl
eus
and
so
somehow pol
ypept
ides
need
to
be
made.
Pol
ypept
ides
can
be
made
fr
om
ri
bosomes
but
t
his
doesn'
t
code
for
t
he
pol
ypept
ide.…read more

Comments

Swallowtail

This set of notes are extremely well presented, full of useful detail and with helpful exam tips and hints. The author has included flow diagrams, tables, graphs and questions and answers. There are links back to AS and ideas given on how to phrase and extend answers. They cover the wide range of topics included in the OCR A2 topic -cellular control, variation, genetics, variation, biotechnology, the nervous system and muscles.  A  thoroughly recommended resource.


Bethany Cunningham

Thank you!

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