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based on common characteristics, either physical or genetic
`Life' has MRS GREN in common.
Classification is hierarchical, large groups are divided up into
nonoverlapping smaller groups.
Phylogenetic organisation is based on the order in which
organisms evolved, generally going from simple to complex.
There are 5 kingdoms ­…

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a species is a group of organisms capable of interbreeding to
produce fertile offspring. This definition is frequently the start of
a question on speciation.
Species are produced from existing species by isolation and
mutations in the isolated populations until the populations are no
longer compatible. This may be genetically…

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neuron can fire in a second by giving you the time of the
refractory period.
The intensity of a stimulus is signalled by how many times a
neuron `fires' in a second.
The impulse is passed from one neuron to another at a synapse
When the impulse arrives Ca2+ ions…

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Cones are found in the area directly behind the pupil (the fovea),
away from the fovea the proportion of rods increases.
No cells are found where the optic nerve leaves the eye, this is
called the blind spot.
can be muscles and /or glands
a whole muscle contracts

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The blood glucose level decreases, and insulin production stops.
If the glucose level falls due to respiration in the cells, the
pancreas detects the fall.
The cells of the Islets secrete glucagon into the blood.
This signals to cells with a glycogen store that they must
hydrolyse the glycogen to…

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The increased heat production combined with the increased
insulation raises the body temperature.
Osmoregulation maintains the water balance so reactants are in
the correct concentrations to maintain metabolism at the correct
It also serves an excretory function (removal of waste products)
as urea passes out with the excess water.…

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When it reaches the 2nd convolution, it increases the permeability
to water, and more water is reabsorbed making the urine even
more concentrated, and an even smaller volume.
This reduces water loss even further, so it can be more easily
restored by drinking, eating, and respiration.

This consists of…


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