F212 - Evolution & Biodiversity

Stuff you need to know for the evolution and biodiversity topic on the f212 exam.

Covers biodiversity, evolution, variation, natural selection, adaptation and conservation.

Also contains some helpful links.


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  • Created by: Charlotte
  • Created on: 15-04-13 19:05
Preview of F212 - Evolution & Biodiversity

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UNIT 2 (F212)
Molecules, Biodiversity, Food and Health.
Module 3 Biodiversity and Health
Evolution and maintaining Biodiversity
Evolutionary tree

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Page 2

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Variation is the presence of variety ­ of differences between individuals
Variation within species is seen with most characteristics e.g.…read more

Page 3

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List the anatomical adaptations shown below of marram grass ­
i) Leaves curled
ii) Stomata sunken in pits
These adaptations trap layer of moist air near
stomata so reducing the water vapour
potential gradient ­ reduces transpiration
water loss
Variations that help the organism survive are adaptations and clearly the process of evolution works
by selecting particular adaptations to survive so they can pass on their alleles to the next generation.…read more

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Some factors in the environment that act as selective forces include
Physical and chemical factors
2.3.3. (g) define the term speciation p.215
2 closely related species ­ will belong to the same genus and over a long time and many
generations there will be slow accumulation of changes. Once they cannot interbreed to
produce viable offspring they become 2 different species.
Allopatric selection
The role of geographical barriers in separating populations and seeing how they evolve.…read more

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The frequency of these alleles increases within the population when the selection pressure still
The Allele frequency stays the same with no selection pressure.
The Alleles are passed on to the next generation ­ remember it is not the natural selection of
the individual that matters but the alleles.
Explain how the Biston betularia moth population changed in Britain after 1849.
This animation shows how the population changed.
Before this date the main type of moth found was the Light peppered moth.…read more

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Darwin studied:
Brachiopiods to show how they slowly changed over time
He was also fascinated with Armadillos and the fossil remains of Glyptodonts ­ many times bigger
than the armadillo.
Gaps in fossil records can occur as only hard parts of an organism will fossilise and even then may be
destroyed by rock movements
The similarity of biological molecules also provides strong evidence for evolution ­ e.g.…read more

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Selection favours these copper tolerant plants/ alleles.
Only the copper tolerant plants grow/ the non tolerant ones die off.
This could be a naturally existing variation that gives the plant no advantage so in normal soil it
is selected against.
Copper is the environmental factor
Normal levels of copper are a stabilising factor.
High levels of copper cause evolution and cause selection pressure/natural selection.
The alleles of the copper tolerance change from being in the minority to the majority.…read more

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We need to conserve species for:
Economic and ecological reasons
Regulation of atmosphere and climate
Purification and retention of water
Formation and fertilisation of soil
Recycling nutrients
Detoxification and recycling of wastes
Crop pollination
Growth of timber, food and fuel
Ethical and aesthetic reasons
All living organisms have the right to survive
Experience a feeling of well being when observing nature
Recovery from stress and injury enhanced by pleasing natural environment
2.3.…read more

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Loss of land due to a rise in sea levels and increased salinity of the soil
2.3.4. (d) describe the conservation of endangered plant and animal species, both in situ and
ex situ, with reference to the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches (HSW4,
6a, 6b) p.224227.…read more

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This is just the rocky shores which are SSSi
Local nature reserves ­ country wildlife parks
Repopulation ­ It can be achieved by rebuilding the habitat ­ new reed beds have resulted in the
return of bitterns and otters
South Africa ­ Phinda reserve has replaced livestock with 1000wildebeast, zebras, giraffes in 1990
and 1992. 30 white rhinos and 56 elephants later and 13 lions and 17 cheetahs.
2.3.4.…read more


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