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Slide 1

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Explanations of independent
behaviour- why people don't
conform or obey
AS Psychology, unit 2, aqa a- social…read more

Slide 2

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Dispositional factors
· Experience of the situation- if a person has
knowledge about the situation they are less likely to
conform or obey
· Non authoritarian personality- Milgram interviewd
participants that took part in the experiment and
found that those who had a low score on the scale had
a non authoritarian personality and were less likely to
give higher shock- showing a non authoritarian
personality makes you less likely to obey.
· High moral personality- those who scored higher on
Kohlberg's moral dilemmas scale were less likely to
obey, showing participants with highly developed
morals will resist unjust orders…read more

Slide 3

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Dispositional factors
· Internal locus of control- Atgis found those with a
internal locus of control (they controlled their
destiny) were less likely to conform
· Non conformist personality- some people are anit
conformist as they actively oppose the norm and show
very independent behaviour…read more

Slide 4

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Situational factors
· Legitimate authority- more likely to obey if the
person appears to know more about the situation or
appears to have more power, and is effected by the
way the authority appears e.g. Milgram variation to a
run down office block where obedience dropped to
48% from 65% and Bickman's study where obedience
was higher if he was dressed as a guard.
· Lack of buffers- something that separates an agent
from the consequences of their actions. Milgram
variation- if the learner is in the same room,
obedience drops to 40%
· Large distance to authority- Mr. Williams gives
instructions over the phone, obedience drops to 21%…read more

Slide 5

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Situational factors
· Dissenters- if another teacher who refuses to obey is
present, obedience of the other teacher drops to 10%
· Agentic shift- people operate on 2 levels: autonomous
level where they feel responsible for their actions
and agentic level where they don't feel responsible
fro their actions. If people don't responsible they are
more likely to obey.
· Social impact theory- suggests that the size of the
majority (less than 3), time spent with majority
(short time) and inconsistent message will reduce
conformity…read more

Slide 6

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Situational factors
· Gender- men are less likely to conform
· Culture- individualistic cultures are less conformist…read more


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