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How to view cells
Length of Image = Magnification x Length of specimen

Resolution = How detailed the image is
Magnification = How much bigger the image is than the specimen.

There are two electron microscopes which are a lot more detailed than the optical telescope; the
scanning and…

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These contain digestive enzymes which are used to digest invading cells, worn out cell
components, or for self-programmed death.

Endoplasmic reticulum
This is an extensive network of cisternae held by the cytoskeleton
The smooth E.R. is involved in synthesising and processing lipids
The rough E.R. is studded with ribosomes. It…

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To separate the organelles, you need to use a centrifuge. The test tube with the solution in is spun at
a low speed, making the heaviest organelles go to the bottom forming a pellet, while the rest stay
above (the supernatant). The supernatant is drained off then spun again.…

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Cholera produces a toxin choleragen which binds to the cell membrane, increasing the rate of active
transport. It causes protein channels in the plasma membrane to open. This moves way more ions into
the lumen, creating a higher concentration of ions, which means that it has a lower water…


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