AQA Biology- unit 2: 13.1 Exchange between organisms + their enviroment

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  • Exchange materials include: respirotary gases, nutrients, excretory products(e.g. urea) and thermal heat
    • Exchange and transport
      • Factors effecting exchange: size of organism, metabolic rate, surface area:volume ratio
      • Specialised exchange surfaces have: very large SA:V ratio,thin and partially permeable exchange surface membrane, a diffusion gradient
      • Exchange takes place by: diffusion and osmosis (passively), or by active transport (actively)
      • Large organism with a small SA:V ratio have adapted by having a flattened shape or specialised exchange surface


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