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Chapter 1: Computer Hardware

HARDWARE = The physical components (electronic circuits) that make up
the computer.

SOFTWARE = The programs that run on the hardware.

PROCESSOR = The function of a processor is to fetch the next instruction,
decode the instruction and execute the decoded…

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LIBRARY PROGRAM = Is part of library facilities of a computer used to
find lost files or restore corrupted files.

UTILITY PROGRAM = Is devised to perform operations on files or data.

PROGRAM LANGUAGE COMPILERS = A computer program that
translates text written in computer language into another computer

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SAMPLING RATE = The frequency at which the samples are taken.

BIT-MAPPED GRAPHICS = When each pixel is represented by a binary

PIXEL = The smallest resolvable rectangular area of an image.

VECTOR GRAPHICS = Each graphic is stored using a mathematical formula
to define the shapes.

Chapter 6:…

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ALGORITHM = A mathematical rule or procedure for solving a problem.

Chapter 9: Queues and Stacks

DATA STRUCTURE = Is a way of organising data, can be either static or

QUEUES = A first in first out data structure (FIFO). New items may be
added to the end of…

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BANDWIDTH = The range of frequencies that a medium can successfully

EVEN PARITY = When number of 1s come to an even number and is used by
integrity of data where the parity bit is re-calculated.

ASYNCHRONOUS DATA TRANSMISSION = One character at a time is
sent, with each…

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BUS NETWORK = e.g. Ethernet

1 Easy
and inexpensive to install as requires least amount of cable.
2 Easy to add more stations without disrupting other stations.
1 The whole network hoes down if main cable fails at any time.
2 Cable failure is difficult to isolate.

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WAN = Wide Area Network connects computers and networks together
over a wide geographical area (e.g. national banks)

MODEM = A modulator demodulator converts analogue signals (telephone
lines) into digital signals (computer) and vice versa.

ISDN LINES = Integrated Services Digital Network is a network that is
capable of sending…

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-Header and Footer
-Page numbering
-Find and replace text
-Print preview

DESKTOP PUBLISHING = Is an extension of word processor and used to
create documents such as flyers, newspapers, magazines and books.

-Easier control over page layout
-Better for very long documents (e.g. books)
-Better control of colour layers

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TEXT FILE = A file containing characters organised on a line-by-line basis.

NON-TEXT FILE = Content of file cannot be displayed sensibly in a text
editor because it contains binary codes of nonprintable characters.

PRIMARY KEY = A unique field of a record used to identify the record.


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1-Natural hazards such s fires, floods, hurricanes etc.
2-Deliberate corruption or destruction of data by malicious or terrorist
3-Illegal access to data by `hackers'
4-Accidental destruction of data by hardware failure or program or
operator error.

1-Vetting of prospective employees
2-Seperation of duties…


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