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Glossary of terms ­ Computing
Contents

Basic Definitions
Data
Information
The difference between information and knowledge
Hardware
Software
Input
Output
Peripheral
Binary and other number systems
Character sets
Software concepts
Validation and verification
Methods of validation
Methods of verification
Operating Systems
Features of an Operating System
User Interfaces
Data Types…

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Types of Applications Software
Common Applications
Networking
Types of network
Protocols
Switching
Advantages and disadvantages of the methods of switching
Hardware concepts
Processor Architecture
Automatic data capture




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Basic Definitions


Data

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A raw fact or figure Without meaning, structure or e.g. 22022008
context

Information

Made up of data With meaning, structure and e.g.
context Data: 22022008
Structure: 22/02/2008
Meaning: Date
Context: This is the date Rambo
came out in UK cinemas

The difference between information…

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Information is processed Knowledge is understanding the
data information

Hardware

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Things that you can touch The physical components of a A printer
computer system; something
you can hit with an axe

Software

A series of instructions Program code that a computer A word processor
can execute (run)…

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Binary and other number systems

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Binary Base 2
Two-state; 1 or 0;
Boolean; Yes or No;
Digital; On or Off;


Octal Base 8
Relationship to Binary Octal is binary digits in groups of
three;
From the right, adding a leading
0 at the left;
Converting each group…

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Character sets
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Character set The individual characters that a
computer can distinguish;
Each character is assigned a
unique;
Binary code;
The number of bits necessary to
code each character is a byte / 2
bytes;
ASCII code;


The number of characters in the
character set must be…

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Software concepts


Generic: Off-the-shelf; software that is mass-produced to cater for a number of
different types of user. Generally not customisable and is relatively cheap to
purchase.

Support can be widespread and freely available.

Can be deployed immediately after purchase.



Bespoke: Custom-made; software that has been produced by a consulted…

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Validation and verification



Validation: The process of ensuring that input data conforms to predetermined
standards; ensuring that the input data is valid.

The use of an input mask can aid in validating input data

Methods of validation

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Range An upper and/or lower Value must lie between 0…

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Verification: The process of ensuring that input data matches the source data. This can be
done by entering the source data twice and comparing results (automatic) or
having a manual check of the input data.

Methods of verification

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Manual verification Proofreading; visually checking
the source and object…

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Operating Systems



Real time: Where the processing of inputs and instructions is started as soon as is
possible, with an output expected in a timely manner.



Batch processed: Where a number of similar jobs are grouped together and
processed only when all inputs have been collected and necessary resources
become…

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