F451 glossary

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  • Created on: 04-11-11 11:51
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Glossary of terms ­ Computing
Contents
Basic Definitions
Data
Information
The difference between information and knowledge
Hardware
Software
Input
Output
Peripheral
Binary and other number systems
Character sets
Software concepts
Validation and verification
Methods of validation
Methods of verification
Operating Systems
Features of an Operating System
User Interfaces
Data Types
Database concepts
Relationships
Normalisation
Systems Lifecycle
Feasibility study
Investigation and Analysis
Design
Development
Testing
Implementation and Maintenance
Evaluation
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Types of Applications Software
Common Applications
Networking
Types of network
Protocols
Switching
Advantages and disadvantages of the methods of switching
Hardware concepts
Processor Architecture
Automatic data capture
2…read more

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Basic Definitions
Data
Identify Amplify Exemplify
A raw fact or figure Without meaning, structure or e.g. 22022008
context
Information
Made up of data With meaning, structure and e.g.…read more

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Information is processed Knowledge is understanding the
data information
Hardware
Identify Amplify Exemplify
Things that you can touch The physical components of a A printer
computer system; something
you can hit with an axe
Software
A series of instructions Program code that a computer A word processor
can execute (run)
Input
Device that gives data to Allows the user to input data / A mouse
the system instructions into the computer
Output
Device that presents data Give information to the user A monitor
from the…read more

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Binary and other number systems
Identify Amplify Exemplify
Binary Base 2
Two-state; 1 or 0;
Boolean; Yes or No;
Digital; On or Off;
Octal Base 8
Relationship to Binary Octal is binary digits in groups of
three;
From the right, adding a leading
0 at the left;
Converting each group into
denary / octal equivalent;
Hexadecimal Base 16;
Relationship to Binary Hex is binary digits in groups of
four;
Convert each nibble to denary
equivalent;
Use letters for values above 9,
A for 10, B…read more

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Character sets
Identify Amplify Exemplify
Character set The individual characters that a
computer can distinguish;
Each character is assigned a
unique;
Binary code;
The number of bits necessary to
code each character is a byte / 2
bytes;
ASCII code;
The number of characters in the
character set must be less than
or equal to the number of
unique codes available in one
byte / the number of bytes used
ASCII A standard set of characters;
The set of characters that a
computer can recognise;…read more

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Software concepts
Generic: Off-the-shelf; software that is mass-produced to cater for a number of
different types of user. Generally not customisable and is relatively cheap to
purchase.
Support can be widespread and freely available.
Can be deployed immediately after purchase.
Bespoke: Custom-made; software that has been produced by a consulted company to
serve a specific purpose and user. Designed to meet specific requirements
and can be very costly to produce.
Support is limited to the software manufacturer.
Cannot be deployed until it has been produced.…read more

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Validation and verification
Validation: The process of ensuring that input data conforms to predetermined
standards; ensuring that the input data is valid.…read more

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Verification: The process of ensuring that input data matches the source data. This can be
done by entering the source data twice and comparing results (automatic) or
having a manual check of the input data.
Methods of verification
Identify Amplify Exemplify
Manual verification Proofreading; visually checking
the source and object data for
discrepancies
Double entry Data entered twice and the
computer checks both copies
for discrepancies
It is important to note that these two methods of checking data cannot ensure the accuracy
of data.…read more

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Operating Systems
Real time: Where the processing of inputs and instructions is started as soon as is
possible, with an output expected in a timely manner.
Batch processed: Where a number of similar jobs are grouped together and
processed only when all inputs have been collected and necessary resources
become available. This system requires a predefined batch file to outline the
jobs that need to be processed, the order of execution and resources used.…read more

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