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CG1.1
Processor:
ALU - performs the calculations on the data.
Control Unit - controls all of the operations inside the computer.
Register ­ stores a single item of data.

Memory:
RAM - is the type of memory used for temporarily storing programs and data.
· Volatile ­ the data…

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o Portability: very portable due to size
o Use: portable data transfer

Analogue\ Digital:
1. Difference - analogue is a continuous varying signal and digital consists of discrete bit patterns
2. Computers are digital and analogue signals such as temperature\ voice need converting
to digital for processing

Hand Shaking…

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VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) - used for sending voiced messages over the Internet.
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) - enables the transmission of data over a wireless network.

Wireless Networks:

Hardware ­ Wireless Router\ Wireless network card

Advantages:
No need for cabling.
Computers can be used anywhere within range…

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2. A new master file is created and copied across
3. Data that needs updating is updated from transaction to master file
4. New master file replaces the old master file
Verification:
ensure data is consistent
ensure data have not been corrupted
Carried out when d_ata is being entered…

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Data can be accessed speedily and manipulated to form new data
A single database can be shared, internationally if need be
Data duplication can be avoided
Security of data can be centralised

Disadvantages:
Centralised data can be easier to steal than decentralised data
If data is not correct, it…

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Variable: A name used to refer to a memory location used to store data. The value can be changed
when the program running.

Global Variable:
Declared at the beginning of the program and is available throughout the code, including all
subroutines.
Local Variable:
Declared and used inside only one…

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· Initialising Variables
· Annotation

Levels of Languages:
Machine Code
1. Consists of a series of zeroes and ones to make up both instructions and data.
2. Processed by all computers,
3. Very difficult for people to learn
4. Prone to difficult-to-detect errors



Assembly Language
1. One assembly language…

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Advantages
1. It is much faster to send a message (seconds instead of days)
2. It is cheaper - there are no extra charges for sending emails
3. One message can be sent to a number of people.
4. You can send 'attachments' - pictures; sounds; video clips etc…

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Example: Pay roll system ­ All hours worked are stored up and processed at the end of the
month
Example: Electricity bill system ­All the meter readings from premises that use electricity are
collected together and processed as a batch.
Real Time Processing:
1. data received by the computer…

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Direct ­ Changing over to new one immediately
Advantage: Not very costly
Disadvantage: Could be disastrous if there are errors in the new system

Parallel ­ Running both systems together until no issues
Advantage: no disasters if there are errors in the new system
Disadvantage: a lot of duplication…

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