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Slide 1

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Environmental Approaches
Crime and Deviance
Topic 7…read more

Slide 2

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Explaining Offenders
· There have been theories that look at where
offenders live and why they have higher levels of
· One theory is put forward by the Chicago school…read more

Slide 3

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Explaining Offenders ­ Chicago
Shaw and Mckay (1931)
· Found that Chicago could be split into 5 concentric zones
and each had different offender levels
· Zone 2 was closest to the city centre and had the highest
level of offenders
· They also found that Zone 2's population was changing
rapidly but that offender levels weren't changing over
· This shows that the offenders kept changing
· As a result, they argues that it was the zones that were
linked to crime rather than the people…read more

Slide 4

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Explaining Offenders ­ Chicago
Immigrants would arrive The successful
and to the cheapest individuals moved, the
The explanation
zones (the transition unsuccessful individuals
zones) stayed
The high population
The houses of those who
turnover creates social
The process begins moved from the
disorganization (where
again transition zone was re-
informal social control is
filled by immigrants
weak/absent)…read more

Slide 5

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Explaining Offenders ­ Chicago
Shaw and Mckay (1942)
In the poorest
· Changed the definition zones crime is
of social disorganization according to the
to refer to a alternative
set of norms which differ
from mainstream
society's norms Criminals
become the role
The alternative
norms are
passed on
models in this
socialization…read more

Slide 6

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Criticizing Shaw and McKay
· Shaw and McKay have been criticized as being too vague and
too difficult to prove
Sutherland and Cressey (1966)
· Introduced the concept of differential association
· Differential association refers to the fact that:
­ if people interact more with people who define law breaking as
acceptable than people who define law breaking as unacceptable
then they're more likely to break laws themselves
· These definitions vary in frequency, duration ,priority and
intensity…read more

Slide 7

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