Hirschi - age & crime
- Looked at those who don't commit crime, 4000 self report studies.
- Social control theory, people with strong social bonds to agencies of control are less likely to commit crime.
- 4 types of bond: Attachment, commitment, involvement and belief.
- bonds are weakened during adolescent years making them more likely to commit crime
Cohen - Age & Crime
- lower classes are more likely to achieve mainsteam success (they have the same goals) through legitimate means because they have less opportunities due to cultural deprevation
- they end up in deadend jobs which leads to status fustration
- A delinquent subculture is the collective response, turns societies norms & values on its head. They take enjoyment out of discomforting others.
- Only looked at boys
- Only looked at american society
- Only looked at gang orientated crime, doesnt explain crimes such as fraud
Murray - Age & Crime
ill disciplined boys are more 'wayward' & find themselves more likely to end up in trouble.
Age & Crime
- Highest rates of crime at ages (mostly theft, drug use, violence & stealing0 - 19 for males
- 15 for females
- Adults are more likely to commit benefit fraud or domestic violence.
- The elderly are victimised the least however can be at risk to ill treatment or abuse in care homes
- They may commit grey crimes but get away with it because they dont look the part.
Gender & Crime - Women commit less crime?
Biology - Lombroso, physical difference, women are naturally caring, emotional & maternal
Rise of girl gangs & ladette culture & house husbands.
Sex role theory - Oakley, Canalisation. Boys have freedom while girls face strict socialisation.
Parsons - strict gender roles means women have less opportunity to commit.
Social control - Heidenson, domestic violence. keeps women in their place, outside of the home they are vulnerable.
Gender & Crime - women's crimes go unoticed
Problems with official statistics - men are less likely to report a crime on themselves such as domestic violence.
Chivalry thesis - self report showed that differences between men & womens crimes are not wide
Allen, motoring offences. 73% of of women were fined while only 54% of men were = men get harsher sentences.
Biology - Pollak, 'the masked offender'. Women can talk themselves out of trouble, good liars eg period pains.
double deviance eg Vannessa George.
Walklate - **** trials, girls made to feel like they were in the wrong
Dobash & Dobash, women are less likely to report men
Gender & Crime - Why do women commit crime?
Alder - changes in society have enabled women to be liberated from male oppression and also roles are becoming more equal.
Denscombe - women increasingly challenge masculinity. Rise in girl gangs, women challenging men in the work place.
Not all women commit crime
challenging men in the work place = equality!
Still a glass ceiling means not as much opportunity for women to commit crimes.
Gender & Crime - Masculinity
Katz - 'the seductions of crime'. Men commit crime for pleasure eg. irrational violence of football hooligans.
Collier - challenges 'normative masculinity' - Thomas Hamilton. Generalisations may cause men to commit crimes.
Dick Hobb et al - Studied the night time economy using participant observation & interviews with bouncers. They asserted their masculinity through violence.
Messerschmidt - 'normative masculinity' - expressing that they are 'real men'. especially the working glass and ethnic minorities.
Gender & Crime - Victimisation
Young males are more likely to be victims & offenders
- w/c & ethnic minorities live in poor inner city area where more crime takes place
Men are more likely to commit violent offences to other men where as women are more likely to be victims of mens violence.
Females have more fear of crime, especially the elderly, so take more precautions
Ethnicity & Crime - Offending
Official statistics - show black ethnic groups are over represented. Asians are slightly over representated.
Victim surveys - crime tends to be inter racial
Self report studies - offending rates are the same for white, black & asian.
Ethnicity & Crime - Racist police practices
Canteen culture - developed distinctive working values, gives them a sense of unity. Conservativism and racism are part of their values.
Institutional racism - Stephen Lawrence. Individual police are not racist but come to associate young, black malese with offending.
Police 'stop & search' - black people 6x more and asians 4x more than whites - discrimination.
Ethnicity & Crime - Victimisation
Rising number of racially motivated crimes towards ethnic minoirities.
British crime survey - 2000 blacks & indians victims of robbery and theft.
Blacks are more likely to be assulted
Indians, Pakistantis & Bangladeshis are less likely to be assulted.
Chlancy et al - social factors in areas that ethnic minorities live - higher rates of unemplyment & younger age structures of groups.
Ethnicity & Crime - Structural Left realist approa
Crime is a product of cultural deprivation, subculture & marginalisation
The members of the subculture may also commit non utilitarian crime.
Emphasism on comsumerism means they are left wanting but no legitimate means of getting it.
Lea & Young - Britian as a society is racist - some of the police force is racist but other factors explain the differences in statistics
90% of crimes known by the police are reported by the public.
Lea & young criticised the approach to police racism
since 9/11 stereotyping has increased for asians, not blacks.
Suicide - Durkheim
Functionalist & positivist - used official statistics to gain patterns & trends & quantitative data.
Suicide rates are high in protestants, unmarried and drop during times of war.
Social intergration & cohesion: Bonds to institutes in society prevent suicide esp family & religion.
4 types: Alturistic, excessive integration. Egoistic, lack of integration. Fatalistic, excessive regulation. Anomic, lack of regulation.
Suicide as a social fact:
there are certain forces in society that have a clear, definite influence over peoples behaviour. Durkheim can be considered a realist.
Suicide - Douglas
Interpretivist - Durkheim fails to see the true meaning.
Qualitative data = greater depth & deail. Used case studies, interviews and biographies.
Suicide has 4 different meanings:
transformation of self,
transformation of self for others,
achieving fellow feeling &
There is no single act that can be defined as suicide.
Suicide - Atkinson
Phenomenological approach - extreme interpretivism.
The categories of suicide are socially constructed,
Coroners have to 'guess' & piece together what they think the victim used as a reason to commit.
They should look at the following when deciding:
- Suicide notes
- Mode of death
- Location & circumstances of death
- Life history & mental state
Suicide - Taylor
Links interpretivist and positivist approaches.
Looked at parasuicides.
Used case studies of people who took their lives on the London transport network,
the majority of individuals did not intend to die & simply gambled with their lives.
Durkheims social facts + Douglas' meaning
Ordeal suicides, amoie & fatalism
Functionalism & crime - Durkheim
Society is held together by peoples shared values
Some crime is inevitable & should be managed not solved
too much crime is dysfunctional for society when it gets too high - anomie is the main cause of crime
Crime reaffrims boundaries of collective conscience eg Madeline McCann
- Provides jobs
- has a detterence function
- can help ensure apporiate social change occurs
No explanation for why?
Feminists & Marxists
Functionalism & crime - Hirschi
Most people in society dont commit crime due to social bonds, control theory.
4 types of social bond:
1. attachment to institutions
2. Commitment to our role within institutions
3. Involvement, time taken up
4. A belief that we have too much to lose by committing crime
Functionalism & crime - Merton
When the w/c cant achieve through meritocracy = strain. Eg The American Dream
They respond in 5 ways:
Cannot be fully applied to British society
Functionalism & crime - Kingsley - Davis
Crime can be functional for society
Eg. Prostitution helps maintain the nuclear family.
- If unhappy husbands pay for sex then they are less likely to have an affair.
Under estimates the negative effect it can have on women
Environmental theories, gangs & subcultures
Enviromental theories - looks at nature of neughbourgoods in describing & explaining social problems.
Routine Activities Theory:
Crime is likely to take place somewhere where there is: Likely offenders, attractive targets, absence of 'capable guardians'
Familiarity means please are more likely to commit 1.93 miles from their home on average.
Brantinghams & cognitive mapping - georgraphy of the place we live in & familiar routes.
Skogen & spiral of decay - 2 types of disorder: physical & social.
weakens informal social control
Shaw & McKay - Crime flourises in the transition zone due to the social disorganisation.
Crime remains constant in that zone but when individuals move away they do not commit
Environmental theories, gangs & subcultures - Cohe
Looked at delinquent boys who held different values
They had 2 reasons to join gangs:
- poor socialisation at home
- denial of positive recognition from teachers
Due to status fustration, gangs are a way of gaining respect.
When realising they cannot achieve they respond collectively
Environmental theories, gangs & subcultures - Matz
Delinquents are the same as everyone else,
they have 2 sets of values suterranean and non deviant.
If subcultures existed they would be deviant all the time however people just drift in & out of crime.
They use techniques of neutralisation to get themselves out of trouble
Environmental theories, gangs & subcultures - Mill
Miller - Delinquency is a consequence of normal w/c values.
These values result in the inability of w/c boys to achieve success resulting in crime becoming a normal extension of w/c values.
6 elements (focal concerns):
Patrick - Used covert participant observation, looked at motivation behind gang behaviour
Environmental theories, gangs & subcultures - !!!
Evaluation of Cohen - Cloward & Ohlin
- failed to explain why there are different forms of gangs
- depends on the enviromental factors providing different opportunties
1. Criminal gang
2. Conflict gang
3. Retreatist gang
Labelling theory - Becker & Lemert
Socially constructed master label = self fulfilling prophecy
actions can be interpreted differently to their social context - eg nudity.
Primary deviance = deviant act goes unnoticed
Secondary deviance = negative label resulting in a master label and then a self fulfilling prophecy.
Labelling theory - Chambliss & Cohen
The saints & the roughnecks
saints from m/c, roughnecks from w/c
police labelled roughnecks negatively and so they got in more trouble
agencies of control generated further deviance.
The Mods & Rockers
Media created further deviance, folk devils & moral panic aplified the problem
The media exaggerated and distorts reality
Police were influenced by the media
Labelling theory - Young & Evaluation
Hippies - media made a problem that hadnt previously existed 'dope smokers'
- SFP doesnt always occur
- cold blooded urder is not socially constructed
- realist criminology, they are not REAL victims
People control society - interpretivist approach
Impact of crime in the media - more fear for tabloid readers, they are more likely to be in transition zone
Social Policy - 1) Name and shame = increasing labelling to deter criminals (Sarah Payne) 2)Avoid labelling to prevent further deviance
Crime & reality TV - Crime watch, police camera - focuses on street crime
Crime & news - over-represened violent & sex crimes compared to official statistics, creates moral panic
Tabloid = 34% crime, Broadsheet = 5.1% crime.
Novelty, excitement, titilation, personality
Traditional Marxists & Crime - Conflict view & eva
Conflict view -
The rich exploit the poor and the law stops people expresing their dissatisfactions. The law is also selectively inforced.
To get rid of crime a transformation of society must happen to replace capitalism with communism
- feminists, ignores gender
- white collar criminals do not always get off lightly
- Capitalist countries do not have high crime rates: switzerland
Focuses on the ways in which government criminalises certain groups in society more than others eg the oppressed and disadvantaged
claims individuals choose to commit crime in response to the oppression from capitalist society -unlike traditional marxist who believe they are forced to
Radical criminology - 'The new criminology'
Taylor, Walton and Young:
merged marxism and the labelling theory in a radical alternative model to explain crime
Individuals choose to commit crime to fight the injustices of capitalist system
not caused by biology
Bulgary of the rich can be seen as the 're-distribution of wealth'
The purpose of criminology should be to create societies in which human diversity is accepted and tolerated
Radical Criminology - Stuart Hall 'Policing in cri
'fully social theory of deviance' can become v. close to being achieved since it addresses the actions of 'offenders' and the workings of the criminal justice system and wider society.
growth of muggings during the 1970s, was homed in on by the media creating moral panic, this enabled the government to distribute more police officers in hot spots for mugging resulting in a steep rise in police 'stop and searches' particularly of young back males, the typical mugger.
Capitalist society used the mugging phenomena to justify their ever growing control and enabled them to put more officer on the street without fuss from the public. Gave the government more power the curb the growing discontent with capitalism
Criticisms: No evidence of panic, just media manufacturing
No evidence people did associate young black males with mugging
Ignores the mugger being labelled
Globalisation & Crime - Beck, Taylor & Glocal crim
Postmodernists discuss. Refers to the process of the world becoming increasingly interconnected with the help of advances in ICT and communication technology such as the internet.
'New' crime have emerged: Arms trafficking, trafficking nuclear materials, smuggling of illegal immigrants, trafficking women and children, sex tourism, trafficking body parts, cyber crimes, green crime, trafficking cultural artefacts.
Beck - led to an increasing awareness of risk especially with media reporting the risk associated with increasing cultural, ethnic and religious mix of people. Increase in 'hate' crimes
Taylor - has changed the ways in which businesses work. Trans-national where cheaper wages and lenient health and safety laws. Machines and trans-nationality puts people out of jobs cause them to turn to committing crime in order to survive
Glocal crime - eg drugs trade, both local and trans-natonial. Gang crime has changed, their relationships are now flexible and loose-knit = postmodernism. Some claim old ways still exist and the exist along side each other.
Globalisation & Crime - Green crime
Green crimes include: Air pollution, water pollution, acid rain, fly-tipping, crime against species etc.
The effects of green crime often cross national boundaries.
Beck - green crime is a symptom of the global risk society we live in. Media technology enabled us to become aware of the effect and risks of human actions eg. climate change.
Globalisation & Crime - Is green crime really a cr
Green Criminologists - it is crime as it harms people. A transgressive criminology is needed where boundaries are opened to new types of crime.
Traditional criminology - crime is specific law breaking behaviour (not green crime) so should focus on traditional issues. Marxist claim this is typical of the government trying to define 'law and order'
White - depends if you have an anthropocentic view or an ecocentric view
Globalisation & Crime - Primary & Secondary green
Primary green crime - are those that result from the direct destruction of the earth's resources:
Crimes of air pollution, Deforestation, Water pollution
Secondary green crime - grows out of the breaking of rules which are intended to prevent environmental disasters or other crimes:
State violence eg terrorism, Hazardous waste & organised crime.
Globalisation & Crime - State crime, McLaughlin
illegal or deviant activites committed by, or on behalf of, states in order to help further their policies. eg torture, imprisonment without trial, corruption, genocide and war crimes.
McLaughlin: 4 categories of state crime:
Political Crime, such as corruption
Crimes by police, such as genocide and torture
Economic crimes, such as breaking health & safety laws.
Social and cultural crimes, such as institutional racism
The sheer scale of state crime is due to the power that governments have, difficulty from principles of national sovereignty.
Eg. Genocide on Cambodia, Pol Pot. Zimbabwe under Maugabe's rule & Guantanamo Bay
Globalisation & Crime - Human rights
Schwendinger - human rights should not go hand in hand with the law, therefore it is not up to the government to decide what is and isnt a human right = prevents governments from abusing power by breaching peoples rights. This means that States can be charged and punished accordingly - Happy marxists!!
Cohen - dictatorships are more likely to deny human right abuses whereare its much harder for developed countries to do so. Instead they legitimise them 'Spiral of denial':
1) States begin to try and deny that a human right abuse had taken place
2) If denial is too difficult states try to cnceal the ful extent of the issue eg. 'its not what it looks like'
3) If the above is too difficult, states justify their actions by pulling on peoples heart strings eg. 'we're protecting national security
EG: US/UK invasion of Iraq.
Realist criminology - RIght Realism
Wilson - Left realism is too soft. Poverty/deprivation and crime do not always go hand in hand since when the economy rises so do crime rates! Tough approach.
Causes of crime: Biology, Poor socialisation, Poor social control, the existance of the welfare states (Murray)
- target hardening
- military policing
Wilson & Kelling - Broken Windows, tackling anti-social behaviour as soon as it happens will quickly send out a message. Ecourages neighbourhood watch
Realist Criminology - New Left Realism
Agree with Marxists that society is held together by the powerful oppressing the least powerful.
Young - 4 mains causes of crime: Relative deprivation, Individualism, Changing nature of job markets and the media.
To deal with crime according to young, real, practical, workable solutions are needed. Including:
A multiagency approach: the square of crime. Victims, offenders, formal and informal social control agencies need to work togehter.
Eg. Baby P's death, social services and police should have worked more closely together.
Eg. Police Community Support Officers