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LANGUAGE BASICS

Word classes: nouns and adjectives

Nouns
Nouns are often called naming words. They are the names we give to people, places,
objects, feelings and ideas


Types of noun: Proper

Common



Proper nouns ­ usually begin with a capital letter. The refer to specific people and place

Common nouns…

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LANGUAGE BASICS
Infinitive ­ base form ­ the from which all other forms of the verb are derived

Main and auxiliary verbs
The main verb in a clause or sentence is a single verb that expresses the main meaning

The auxiliary verb is one placed in front of main verbs…

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LANGUAGE BASICS

Singular plural

First person I ME WE US

Second person YOU YOU

Third person HE, SHE, IT, HIM, HER THEY, THEM



Possessive Pronouns
These shows possession. Instead of saying `this is Sarah's' we might say `this is hers'

Singular plural

First person MINE OURS

Second person YOURS YOURS…

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LANGUAGE BASICS
Who, whom and whose ­ referring to people
Which and that ­ referring to things

Interrogative Pronouns
These are used when asking a question
The interrogative Pronouns are: who, whose, which and what



Conjunctions
Conjunctions are known as joining words. They join together two parts of a sentence…

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LANGUAGE BASICS

Usually has a noun or pronoun as its headword
A noun phrase is not always a group of words. It can be a single noun or pronoun, without any
modifiers

Verb Phrases
A verb phrase usually contains a main verb (the headword) and any accompanying auxiliary verbs
(Is,…

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LANGUAGE BASICS

In a complex sentence, one or more of the clauses is of lesser importance than the main
clauses.
The lesser clauses are called subordinate clauses
Sometimes a subordinate clause may act as a subject, object or verb.
One way or identifying a subordinate clause is to look for…

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LANGUAGE BASICS

Examples are: apple, train, and house
Bound morphemes are morphemes that cannot stand alone
They have to be attached to other morphemes
Examples are: un- - ­s ­th -ful -ness -er

Inflectional affixes
These are used to indicate certain grammatical features, and in English they are always suffixes…

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LANGUAGE BASICS

Hyponyms are more specific from the hypernym ­ BLUE, BLACK, ORANGE, RED, YELLOW

Synonyms
Synonyms are words that are similar in meaning
Begin-commence-start
Chat-conversation-talk
Assemble-gather-meet

Antonyms
Are words whose meanings are in some way opposite to each other
Hot/cold wet/dry tall/short




Idioms
An idiom is an expression whose…

Page 9

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LANGUAGE BASICS

If vowel sounds clash this is called Dissonance

Diphthongs
Are a combination of two vowel sounds:
Rice, bait, boy, note, town, clear, chair




Cohesion
Halliday and Hasan (1976) identify the following types of cohesion
Grammatical Cohesion ­ including reference, identification, ellipsis and conjunction
Lexical Cohesion ­ repetition and…

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LANGUAGE BASICS
When a noun is first used, it is often preceded by the indefinite article (a) bug later references will
use (the)

Ellipsis
Occurs when elements are omitted from a sentence

Conjunction
This refers to the use of conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs as cohesive devices
Word such as and,…

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