World English

McArthur's Circle of World English
Idea there is multiple varieties of English, e.g American English or New Zealand English. It shows connections between the dialects and gives them all equal status. It also shows levels of language use.
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Criticism of McArthur's circle
It doesn't say to what extent these people are speaking English. Learned from school or native?
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Examples
Biscuit, Flat (UK) - Cookie, Apartment (USA). Freezer (UK) - Chilli Bin (New Zealand)
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Kachru's Three Circles of English
Inner, outer, expanding circle. Shows level of English use, sorts different Englishes in different groups.
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Inner, Outer, and Expanding circle
Inner: Countries where English is the first language - UK, Australia. Outer: If English is a second language - New Zealand, India. Expanding: English not used but being learned for business - China, Russia.
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Criticims of Kachru
Doesn't say how it spreads. Can be suggested that inner circle is privelleged by stating native speakers are at the heart of the language. Pidgins and Creoles do not fit in the model as they may run across all three categories.
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Strevens World Map of English
Shows spread of English, and exhibits similarities with other varieties of English. Shows every variety of English is aligned with one of the two branches of English (American or British).
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Criticism of Strevens
Quite American-centric. Positions American English with British English and doesn't represent origins of American English in British English. Promotes stereotypes that American and British English are central to all Englishes in the World - hierarchy
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Schnieder's Dynamic Model
Model depicts what happens as a influence of colonisation in stages.
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Schnieder's stages., 1-3
1) Foundation: settlers arrive, leads to bilingualism. 2) Exonormative Stabilisation, English used for law, government and education. 3) Nativatisation, 'New English' and native language merge to create new variety.
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Schnieder's stages 4.5
4) Endonormative Stabilisation, new linguistic and social norms are developed and accepted into society. If the country becomes independent English variation is still important. 5) Differentiation, group specific varieties emerge, internal diversity.
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Crystal
Believes that English is the Lingua Franca, nothing can stop its spread. Creation and evolution of World Standard English is probably a derivative of British or American English - agrees with Strevens.
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Crystal's prediction of English speakers
400 million native language speakers, over 400 million with English as a second language. 6.7 million foreign speakers.
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Graddol
Believes English will lose it's momentum. By 2020, predicts amount of native speakers will decline - contradicts Crystal. Idea that a new global form of English is spreading - fragmenting into a 'family of language'.
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Ostler
As American and British powers decline, English will lose it's role of the World's Lingua Franca. Another language will take the place and become a new Lingua Franca.
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Jenkins
Studied mispronounciation of non-native speakers. Consonant sounds are dropped from English Language when used as a Lingua Franca. To continue to have international rule, Lingua Franca must be established.
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Pidgin
No rules. Only know a little bit of English, basic communication to 'get by', between settlers and natives.
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Creole
Has rules. Can be used in speech and writing. Grammar, lexical, semantic rules are in place but not completely understood. E.g Jamaican Creole 'What you is den?' - What are you?
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Lingua Franca
If speakers don't have the same first language, they'll use English as a Lingua Franca (bridge in communication)
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Diaspora
Movement and migration of people and the spread of language. Can see this with Schnieder's model.
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Ghana study
Sounding English was though to be prestigious due to colonial times, tried to mimic accent. But, they're now proud to have Ghana accent and are trying to break away from English.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

It doesn't say to what extent these people are speaking English. Learned from school or native?

Back

Criticism of McArthur's circle

Card 3

Front

Biscuit, Flat (UK) - Cookie, Apartment (USA). Freezer (UK) - Chilli Bin (New Zealand)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Inner, outer, expanding circle. Shows level of English use, sorts different Englishes in different groups.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Inner: Countries where English is the first language - UK, Australia. Outer: If English is a second language - New Zealand, India. Expanding: English not used but being learned for business - China, Russia.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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