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Energy is transferred through ecosystems
Producers > Consumers > Decomposers
Food chains contain different trophic levels
No more than 5 usually
As energy is lost at each level
More complex food webs normally occur as a result
of lots of food chains overlapping
Ecosystems…read more

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Over 90% reflected by clouds
Green light
reflected by leaf
Not all light
chlorophyll Other limiting
factors prevent
Only 1-3% converted to organic matter
Energy loss in producers…read more

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In primary consumers only 5-10% of energy from
producers used for growth
For further consumers this is 10-15%
This is due to:
· Some of organism not being eaten
· Some of the organism is not digested and lost in faeces
· Some energy lost through other products such as urea
· Energy lost as heat to environment and through respiration
Energy loss in consumers…read more

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Net production = gross production ­ respiratory losses
Energy transfer = energy available after transfer x100
energy available before transfer
Equations…read more


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