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Biomass the biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. In the context of
biomass for energy this is often used to mean plant based material, but biomass can equally apply to
both animal and vegetable derived material.
RenewableThese are resources that are capable of natural regeneration into products within a
timescale relevant to the people using it e.g.wind.
NonrenewableA resource that is finite in within a human context e.g.Fossil fuels. They can be used
only once and therefore they can be exhausted.
ResourceIt is something that has a use for it at the time.
Reserve The known quantity available of a resource.
StockAn estimate of how much of the reserve is on the planet as a whole.
Energy demandThe amount of energy required at a certain place at a certain time and it will vary
depending on the time and place.
Energy consumptionIt is the amount of energy consumed by different users and is usually measure in
kW or mW.
Primary energyThis is energy that has not been subjected to any change, conversion or
transformation before use and it exists in a raw form e.g. coal.
Secondary energyThis is energy that has to be converted into a more useful product e.g. the
conversion of coal or gas into electricity.
SustainableUsing something in a way that allows it to be protected for future generations.
Energy securityIt is when you have access to reliable and affordable energy sources like Russia does.
Energy insecurityThis is the opposite of energy security. It is when you do not have access to a
reliable and affordable energy source and rely on other countries or places for energy sources.
Recyclable energy source reprocessed energy. Requires careful management. Today, accounts for
about 10% of the global energy supply. e.g. biomass, biofuels, nuclear power, HEP
Geopolitical Political instability in energy producing regions, disputes or conflict over ownership of
energy resources, or disputes over energy transmission by pipelines or cables across countries.
Energy Pathways: the flows of energy from the producer to the consumer. Eg.North stream pipeline,
Players Consumers, National Governments, Pressure Groups, Local Governments, OPEC,
International Organisations, TNCs, Utility Companies. Eg.OPEC Shell, Exxon, Mobil & BP.
Fossil Fuels Formed over geological time from partly decayed remains of plants & animals During
combustion they produce carbon dioxide contributes to greenhouse effect. (all finite & become
exhausted nonrenewable) Eg Coal, oil & natural gas
Geothermal Deep inside the Earth lies hot water and steam that can be used to heat our homes and
businesses and generate electricity cleanly and efficiently
Peak Oil Peak oil is the point in time when the maximum rate of petroleum extraction is reached, after
which the rate of production is expected to enter terminal decline
Sustainable resources those resources which can be managed to provide an ongoing yield.
Exploitation must not exceed renewal rates or they cease to be sustainable.
Energy Deficit When a country that does not produce enough energy to meet the demands of its
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) Largest onshore oil reserves however, huge wilderness
inhabited by 45 species of land & marine mammals
OPEC Organisation for Petroleum Exporting Countries. 12 members: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Quatar, Saudi
Arabia, Ecuador, United Arab Emirates, Libya. Etc. It protects the interests of member countries Aims
to stabilise oil prices & eliminate harmful & unnecessary price fluctuations. Controls 60% of the world's
Gazprom Gazprom has rapidly become one of the world's most powerful companies. Based in
Moscow, it is the world's largest gas supply company.
Cartel a group of producers within a single industry who agree to limit supply to keep prices high. To be
effective they must control most of the productive capacity of the industry and every member must abide
by the agreement. Not appropriate to all industries. Most countries legislate against cartels as they
exploit the consumer to too great a degree. An example is OPEC
ESI Energy security initiative