Educational Policies in Britain- Sociology AS (AQA)

These notes are ones that I made for my exam, and really helped me revise and get the top grades.

They include everything that the exam board asks for in term of the specification,and are orgainised in a way that will make revision easier, including large bold headings. And they're done in colour! Added bonus! whoop whoop!

I hope they help y'all, and good luck :D

P.s.These notes may contain some minor grammatical errors like spelling misakes, but all information is correct.

P.p.s. I sat the exam in June 2013 btw

Feel free to check out my other sociology notes, aswell as my psychology ones :D

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  • Created by: Glambert
  • Created on: 20-02-14 23:59

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Slide 1

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Educational Policies In
The Historical Development of Education
Education can be both `formal' & `informal'.
· Formal education is being educated by paid professionals in a special formal
environment. E.g. schools/universities.
· Informal education is when the elders of the community may pass on lessons,
told in an informal environment. E.g. the local church (Sunday school). This was
mostly in the pre-industrial society (1800). This was more common then because
it was free.
· Before the 19th century, formal education was only confined to the minority, as
only the wealthy children were educated through private tutors or fee-paying
· The need for a better educated workforce, for economic growth, due to
industrialisation led to the 1870 Education Act, which established compulsory
schooling till the age of 10. However, the type of schooling depended on the child's
social class rather than ability.
· Then came the....
The 1944 Education Act
The Tripartite System was introduced in 1945.
· It was also known as the 11+ Test.
· It was a form of intelligence testing, as different kinds of intelligence required
different kinds of schooling.
· It intended to provide separate but equal types of schooling for particular talents.
· Therefore the tripartite system was introduced for allocating pupils to one of three
different types of schools.
· These went up to the age of 15, and provided different types of education.
Grammar Schools Technical Schools Secondary Modern Schools
· Focused on intellectual · For those pupils · These offered a non-
subjects. who had technical academic practical
· Offered an academic and scientific curriculum.
curriculum that would skills. · Provided access to
provide access to non- · The focus was to manual jobs. Working
manual jobs and produce scientists, class.
higher education. engineers and
Middle Class. technicians.
However...…read more

Slide 2

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Educational Policies In
The Historical Development of Education
Stigma- being
For the WC, being dumped into bullied or Doesn't give pupils
Secondary Modern Schools labelled as equal opportunity.
meant they no longer had any failures.
higher inspiration. Created class
inequality- more
MC attended
Intelligence isn't
always measured Criticisms of The grammar schools
than the WC.
through testing. Tripartite.
Children Created gender
could be slow inequality- girls
developers. The tests were had to get a
Culturally/class bias. Being labelled
could result in higher mark on
They were designed by the test.
the white MC, so gave low attainment.
white MC pupils
***However testing can be positive as it gives a baseline on starting
secondary schools (groups/sets).***
However it was then abolished,
which led to the introduction of
Comprehensive Education...…read more

Slide 3

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Educational Policies In
The Historical Development of Education
Comprehensive Education
· Introduced in England & Wales during the 1960's and 1970's.
· All pupils in an area would attend the same school regardless of their gender, class
and ethnicity.
· There would be no selection or different types of schooling/education.
· Pupils would have more opportunities to gain qualifications.
Why was it introduced?
· Gets rid of entrance fees.
· Breaks down class divisions, as now all classes of society are taught
· To overcome stigma attached to academic failure.
· To remove inequalities/criticisms of the tripartite system.
· To overcome selection at the age of 11
Strengths of Comprehensive Education:
· Free-gives everyone a chance.
· Allow all types of ability into one school-reduces class division.
· Overcame the labelling of being a failure, and low self-esteem of pupils due to
· Identifies talent and creates a meritocratic system.
· Aims to develop talent and ability, rather than favouring the most able students.
· Encourages all types of skills and learning.
· Mixed ability could give low ability students inspiration from the high ability ones.
· All students have the same access to the type of education.
· Entrance was based on catchment areas, not ability.
· Enforced the teaching of the NC.
· In 1983, comprehensive schools did better than grammar schools.
· Pass rates increased for comprehensive schools according to grammar
HOWEVER....…read more

Slide 4

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Educational Policies In
The Historical Development of Education
Comprehensive Education
Weaknesses of Comprehensive Education:
· Mixed ability-teachers either focus only on the low ability or
the high ability.
· Grammar schools had higher education standards, so when
they became less common, education standards dropped.
· Even comprehensive schools place students into sets
according to their ability. Different attainment levels; high
ability sit high papers, which usually tends to be the middle
class. This makes the high class have better and better
attainment, and low class have lower and lower attainment,
therefore it's no different than the tripartite system.
· Entrance due to catchment areas still creates division as the
WC tend to live together, and the MC tend to live together.
· Marketistion creates `class schools' (league tables).
· Brighter pupils are held back, as attention is given to lower
class pupils to catch up.
· Bullying and self-esteem issues can still remain.
· Teachers may still label, due to ability levels…read more

Slide 5

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Educational Policies In
The Historical Development of Education
Independent schools
· Fees are charged for some or all pupils.
· They form the private sector of education.
· They are based on selection.
· Don't teach the NC
· There's a strong link between independent schools and the top jobs.
· Largely draw pupils from the upper classes.
· Often have their sources of income from land, and investments from past pupils.
· Independent schools are supported by the New Right as it supports the `free market'.
· Generally having better results. · Fees
· Better resources/facilities. · Have to sit an exam to get entry.
· Better teachers. · Class inequality as mostly MC attend
independent schools.
· Smaller class sizes-teaching less
problematic students. · Snobby rich kids
· Highers careers later in life. · Maintains and reproduces class divisions
within society- Marxists view.
· Extra curricular activities.
· Less behaviour issues-higher discipline.
· Freedom- not controlled by the LEA
(Local Education Authority).
Assisted Places Scheme
· Involves giving money to gifted children, to help them pay fees for
independent schooling.
· This was introduced in the 1980 Education Act.
· This scheme reinforces the private sector of education.
· A selection of pupils is left to the schools, and they usually undertake
· This system may continue to disadvantage the WC pupils.…read more

Slide 6

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Educational Policies In
Marketisation & Parentocracy-
Conservative Government 1979-1997
· Saw education as failing to provide a skilled workforce.
· Schools were seen to fail pupils, and standards were dropped.
· Therefore the standards needed to be raised, and this was through introducing
competition between schools- creating and `education market'.
· Parental choice was increased, greater government control was established over what
was taught, LEA's lost some of their influence and vocational education was introduced.
1988 Education Reform Act
· National Curriculum in England and wales.
· National testing through SATs-this leads to competition as results of all the
different schools can be compared.
· Schools could opt out of LEA control and become `Grant Maintained
Schools' -LEA has less control over schools, and schools have choice to spend
wherever, so they can make their school better.
· Greater parental choice- right to send their child to the school of their
choice. This leads to competition as schools have to look good in front of
· Formula Funding- the funding the school receives based on the number of
pupils it attracted. Popular schools (due to better results) get more funding
so can afford better resources/teachers/facilities. This leads to competition
as the popularity allows schools to be more selective and attracts more MC.
· Vocational education-reduces unemployment. E.g. Health & Social care,
business, hair & beauty).
· Allowed CTCs to be set up, which were sponsored by private industry-LEA
had less control.
· League Tables- schools required to publish exam results, truancy and
attendance rates. This leads to competition as parents can see and compare
· Ofsted- inspections of schools (results made public). This leads to
competition as parents can see and compare schools.
· Specialist Schools- schools allowed to specialise in technology, sciences and
arts. This leads to competition as it attracts parents.…read more

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