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Section 1: Perspectives on Education.


Behaviorists, such as Skinner and Bandura see learning as a process of building associations between
stimuli, responses and outcomes. Behaviorists reject argue that we are all mindless autonoma who
learn only from conditioning. They argue that it is not possible to objectively study people's…

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Vygotsky was also a constructivist, however whilst Piaget's theories depend on biological stages,
Vygotsky focused more on the role of social interaction. He refers to the gap between actual and
potential learning as the Zone of Proximal Development and argues that the gap can only be bridged
by interaction with…

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Behaviourism can be evaluated on a number of issues, for example methodology, sample, reductionism,
ethics and usefulness.

Behaviourism uses predominantly Lab experiments for its methodology for example Pavlov's
research used a carefully controlled lab environment which allowed Pavlov to identify factors/variables
causing behaviour with less confounding variables. Similarly Skinner and…

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The Cognitive perspective can be evaluated on a number of issues, for example determinism,
reductionism, and usefulness.

Determinism is another evaluative issue with which to compare the two perspectives. The original
behaviourist theories of classical and operant condition are incredibly deterministic saying that we have
no control over our…

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prior knowledge to new knowledge. By recapping prior knowledge at the beginning of the lesson, it
also lightens the revision loads for students as the knowledge will already be fresh in their minds


The Humanistic perspective can be evaluation in terms of reductionism, ethnocentrism, sample,
usefulness and validity.


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