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Special Educational Needs

Section One: Definitions, types & Assessment of Special Educational needs

Children with SEN's were based upon a medical of `defect's
Model focused on:
`difference' rather than normality
`illness' rather than well-being
`deficit' rather than potential
& on the `problem' with the child
Originally children with SEN's…

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ERA 1993
Push for inclusive approach
Schools have to prove that they cannot cope and provide for a student before they
are sent to a specialist school

Criticism: Medical Model of Disability = dehumanising, treating children like objects (Lewis

Definitions of Learning Difficulties:
Social/emotional ­ students with ADHD, Autism…

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Study One: Freeman (1979) Identification and development of Gifted Children in a
social context

Aim: To determine the relationship between IQ and the environment a child is in.
Sample & Variables:
3 groups of 70 students.
Parents had joined NAGC.
Matched for class in school and same score on Ravens…

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Section Two: Independent Study of One Specific learning Disability


Research the causes and effects of the condition.
Link specifically to educational practice.

Autism is a type of developmental disorder. This means that children with autism
develop their learning and thinking skills in unusual ways and at…

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If there is autism in the family, there is an increased risk of someone else in the
family having autism, Asperger syndrome or a language disorder. The risk is increased
from about 1 in 1000 to 2-3 in 100.

Children with autism have a language disorder.

They have difficulty understanding…

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o For example, a routine could be disturbed if a parent uses a different route when
taking the child to school.

They may have tantrums and be aggressive at times, especially if they have to cope
with a change to their routine.

Sometimes they will deliberately hurt themselves.

They may…

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Section Three: Strategies for educating students with Special Needs

Inclusion or segregation
Should children with SEN's be segregated or included in mainstream schools?
There is a trend towards inclusion both within this country and internationally
Many theorists believe that inclusive education for children with SEN should be
thought of as…

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Initiatives of inclusion
In Britain there are different schools of thought about the best way to include
children with SEN.
Some theorists argue total inclusion is important, whereas others, such as
Marston (1996) found that students who were taken out of classes and taught in
special groups for some activities…

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Study Three: Learning Disabilities: Should we have Segregation or inclusion?
Gillies et. Al 2000

Aim: to investigate the effects of structured and unstructured lessons for children with
learning difficulties,

Sample: ­ 152 children ­ mean age 9
­ 25 classes in 11 schools in Brisbane
­ Sub-group ­ 22 students…

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Study Four: Ireson et al (2002); To examine the effects of setting vs. mixed ability

Aim: Effects of mixed ability groups and sets on attainment and self-image.
Sample: 45 comprehensive schools ­ one cohort ­ year 9 ­ 11 some schools set their
students some didn't.

IV: Set…


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