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Topic 7: Process Details

Sliding Filament Theory:
1. Nerve impulses arrives at a neuromuscular junction.
2. Calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
3. Calcium ions diffuse through the sarcoplasm.
4. This initiates the movement of the protein filaments.
5. Calcium attaches to the troponin molecule causing it to…

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Krebs Cycle
1. 2 carbon acetyl CoA combines with a 4carbon compound to create a
6carbon compound.
2. Two steps involve decarboxylation with the formation of carbon dioxide.
3. Four steps involve dehydrogenation, the removal of hydrogen atoms to
convert NAD to reduced NAD or FAD to reduced FAD.

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5. The impulses spread upwards through the ventricle walls and cause
contraction of the ventricles.
6. Blood is squeezed into the arteries.

ECG Trace Explanation
P Wave: depolarisation of the atria, leading to atrial contraction.
PR Interval: the time taken for impulses to be conducted from the SAN
across the…

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7. Impulses are sent from the ventilation centre to stimulate the muscles
involved in breathing.
8. Chemoreceptors in the aorta and carotid artery are stimulated by
changes in pH resulting from changes in carbon dioxide concentration.
9. Chemoreceptors monitor the blood before it reaches the brain and send
impulses to…


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