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Photosynthesis & Chloroplasts

6CO + 6HO CHO + 6O

Heterotroph ­ something which gets its food from other organisms
Autotroph ­ creates its own food
Photoautotroph ­ uses light & energy to create its own food

ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate (3 phosphate groups)

Universal energy source.
Powers cellular processes by…

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Starch Grain Organelle which contains starch

Lamellae Extension of the Thylakoids (contain

Thylakoids Organelle which contains chlorophyll
(and PSI & PSII) found in the Stroma in
stacks called Grana. Increase surface
area for light capture and allows
capture of photons with a wider
range of wavelengths. Light
Dependant Reactions…

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synthesised. Also contains starch
grains and lipid droplets.

Ribosomes Organelle for synthesis of

Outer Membrane Permeable to most ions and
(double membrane) metabolites.

Inner Membrane Highly specialised with transport
(double membrane) proteins

Chlorophyll Pigments
There are 5 pigments:
Chlorophyll a
Chlorophyll b

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All parts of the plant do not need to carry out photosynthesis and therefore do not have
chloroplasts. The most abundant type of chlorophyll is `chlorophyll a' which is found in
most places. The benefit of having different types is that it is most efficient as each of…

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Takes place on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts. It has 2 main
1. To produce ATP, supplying energy for the synthesis of carbohydrates
2. Split water molecules in a photochemical reaction providing hydrogen
ions to reduce CO2 & produce carbohydrates

The smallest unit of light energy is a…

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PSI. PSI then receives an electron to replace the one that was lost to the light
independent reactions.
As the chlorophyll molecule in PSII is short of an electron and unstable, an
electron has to be found from somewhere to restore the chlorophyll to its
original state. The electron comes…

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The Calvin Cycle
Intermediates of the Calvin Cycle:
RuBP (Ribulose Biphosphate)
Rubisco (Ribulose Biphophate Carboxylase/Oxygenase enzyme)
GP (Glycerate 3 ­ phosphate)
TP (Triose phosphate) = GALP (Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate)

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The enzyme Ribisco combines RuBP with CO to form a 6 carbon molecule
(unstable) which then splits into 2 GP molecules which are 3 carbons each.
These molecules are reduced using ATP energy & H+ from NADPH (from the
light dependent reactions) to form 2 GALP molecules (3 carbons each).…

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Abiotic factors ­ non-living elements of the habitat of an organism e.g.
sunlight, temperature, soil, ph.
Biotic factors ­ living elements of a habitat which affect the ability of a group
of organisms to survive there e.g. the presence of suitable prey will affect the
number of predators in the…

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Secondary colonisers more adapted to the new environment will then
colonise the land
Larger trees block the growth of smaller plants, due to competition for
sunlight & species diversity drops.
Climax community is self-sustaining & reached where the
biodiversity is constant. Not many further changes occur.

Secondary Succession ­






thanks this is really gud


naruto qatar

Awesome thank u so much :D


Amazing thankyou!!


thankyou,so helpful


hi i was just wondering if this covered both unit 4 and 5? thank you!

Former Member

This is just unit 4 for anyone wondering.


Only unit 4 :/



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