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Topic 5: On the wild side
Describe how to carry out a study on the ecology of a habitat to produce valid and reliable data
(including the use of quadrats and transects to assess abundance and distribution of organisms and the
measurement of abiotic factors, eg solar energy input, climate,…

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Describe the light-independent reactions as reduction of carbon dioxide using the products of the
light-dependent reactions (carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle, the role of GP, GALP, RuBP and RUBISCO)
and describe the products as simple sugars that are used by plants, animals and other organisms in
respiration and the…

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Topic 6: Infection, immunity and forensics
Describe how to determine the time of death of a mammal by examining the extent of decomposition,
stage of succession, forensic entomology, body temperature and degree of muscle contraction.
Describe the role of micro-organisms in the decomposition of organic matter and the recycling of…

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Describe the non-specific responses of the body to infection, including inflammation, lysozyme action,
interferon, and phagocytosis.
Explain the roles of antigens and antibodies in the body's immune response including the involvement
of plasma cells, macrophages and antigen-presenting cells.
Distinguish between the roles of B cells (including B memory and B…

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Describe the roles of glycolysis in aerobic and anaerobic respiration, including the phosphorylation of
hexoses, the production of ATP, reduced coenzyme and pyruvate acid (details of intermediate stages
and compounds are not required).
Describe the role of the Krebs cycle in the complete oxidation of glucose and formation of carbon…

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Topic 8: Grey matter
Describe the structure and function of sensory, relay and motor neurones including the role of Schwann
cells and myelination.
Explain how the nervous systems of organisms can cause effectors to respond as exemplified by pupil
dilation and contraction.
Describe how a nerve impulse (action potential) is…

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Describe how the nervous systems of organisms can detect stimuli with reference to rods in the retina
of mammals, the roles of rhodopsin, opsin, retinal, sodium ions, cation channels and hyperpolarisation
of rod cells in forming action potentials in the optic neurones.
Compare mechanisms of coordination in plants and animals,…

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